Unit-2 Income Programs European Countries | Low Income Housing For Seniors
Unit-2 Income Programs European Countries Tranfield et al. (2003) believe that literature review throws light on all the relevant theories and academic work that has taken place in the academic world relevant to the research objectives designed by researcher. Reading the literature about the relevant issues of research help researchers to enhance their knowledge about subject of research leading to further clarification of the research questions. Saunders et al. (2009) are of the view that literature review is a section of any research study that primarily focuses on involving the secondary academic sources to build the necessary foundation of research without which authentic and reliable research may not be possible. Secondary resources mainly include the work of different authors and scholars who are deemed as experts of the subject or a relevant discipline of the research. By incorporating the work that has already been published in the academic world does not only help building the base of research but also assists researchers to build sound understanding and an insight about the topic of proposed research study and the relevant questions of the research. Tranfield et al. (2003) argue that literature review is helpful in finding the loopholes and gaps in the already established theories and allows a researcher to address the concerns left in the earlier work of scholars and researchers. Literature review is very important to include in any research study because of its ability to evaluate the comments, thoughts and opinions of different authors without any bias and weigh the theories and any relevant earlier work on the basis of the provided evidence by different scholars and authors. By uncovering loopholes and gaps in the research done earlier by scholars, it also provides the platform for researchers to conduct further research on the topic and get all of the gaps and loop holes uncovered. As part of secondary research, literature review helps researchers in collecting range of different evidences of various theories present in the academic world with adding the comments of authors opposing those theories. Similarly, this research study will also incorporate range of different academic sources to complete the literature review chapter with success and authenticity, the sources to be used in this chapter would be articles, newspapers, books, journals, Internet etc. Moreover, literature review is considered to be one of the most important parts of any research study to build a base and help researchers complete the whole research project with reliability, authenticity and success.
This chapter presents the literature review regarding welfare states, social policies and Guaranteed Minimum Income programs in general and in the context of Europe. The purpose of this chapter is to address the research objectives with the help of currently available literature. The literature is sought through studying highly relevant academic resources that is books, journal articles, and government reports issued for public audiences. The information was taken from selected journals and review magazines, such as Journal of European Social Policy, Publications of European Union, Review of Economic Policy, and other journals specialized in social and economic policies, and public management, as well as relevant university sources, as detailed in bibliography. This desk review has equally examined professional, elite-grey research carried out by humanitarian and development practitioners in the field of economic and social policy, known and available to the researcher. This information was obtained from the economic and social policy modules studied during the master course, and by conducting online inquiry through search engines such as Google and e-libraries such as Quest.
Key Search Terms used to interrogate these resources were numerous, but included: “Guaranteed Minimum Income Program”, “the economic policy”, “the social policy”, “the impact of GMI on economic and social policy”, “GMI in European Union Countries”, “differences of GMI programs in EU Countries”, “GMI in Europe”, “the economic and social consequences of GMI Application”, “Public Policies in European Union Countries”, and “the criticism over GMI Program”.
The chapter begins with the basic idea of welfare, its origin, and how it is structured in different countries. It, then, moves on to study the European Welfare System, where the Welfare Regimes typology for European Countries set out by Esping-Andersen (1990) is discussed in detail. The next section explores the current literature on Guaranteed Minimum Income Programs, and their presence in different countries in different forms.
The Concept of Welfare
The concept of social welfare is traditional and precedes modernideas of a contemporary “welfare state”. Rulers in ancient Rome, such as Augustus and Trajan, had already offered some kind of assistance for people who did not have the resources to acquire foodstuffs in the first century. At that time, such help was known as, “congiaria” and “alimenta” (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2014).Much later, in the Middle Ages, the Catholic Churchoffered an embryonic welfare system that started to institutionalize social welfare programs, rather than focusing on intermittently assisting the passing travellers with food and shelter regardless of their incomes. Through institutionalization of these welfare programs, they began to focus on the deprived, the meagre, and the sick (Brodman, 1998).
Unit-2 Income Programs European Countries | Low Income Housing For Seniors
The ‘mixed economy of welfare’, ‘welfare pluralism’ or the ‘welfare mix’ are some distinct terms for the variety of providers within welfare systems. Some researchers (Daly and Lewis, 2000, Evers, 2005)scrutinize these and argue that ‘over-all welfare’ in society is the sum of the household (or family), market and the state. This reminds that welfare can be supplied from various sources, and that the welfare mix can be different over time and between countries(Mayo, 1997). However, the sectors are not simply preservative or substitutable, in the way that provision by different sectors has different distributional impacts. Moreover, the portion tends not to pay attention towards the necessity to examine finance and regulation in addition to production (Kamerman, 1983). For example, the state can supply welfare by establishing a local authority housing in European countries but, it can also finance welfare such as pay rents to private landlords or regulate standards, devise actions to help the poor and make plan or implement actions for price/rent control (Brenner and Franklin, 1977).
Santana (2002) augmented upon the reasons for welfare provision among which; economicefficiency, social equality, social integration, stability, autonomy and poverty alleviation are on priority. These tend to be associated with differentvalues and ideologies in different states according to the allocated weights or prioritiesto these(Silver, 1994). For example, Liberal welfare governments attribute more weight to economic efficiency whereas Portugal, Italy and various other countries prioritize human wellbeing in the form of social equity and poverty alleviation (Perry, 2006). However, countries need to managethe tensions and trade-offs concerning the criteria. For example, many states arguethat there is a tension between efficiency and equality (Santana, 2002).Order Now