Unit-2 Butler’s Theory of Tourism Development
The introductory chapter of the dissertation reviews about the significance and background of the entire study. Aim and purpose of the research is clearly stated in this chapter and the objectives are even bulleted in order to accomplish the reservation in an efficient way. Some research questions are also imposed based upon the research objectives that have been set by the researcher. The research rationale has been also explained by the researcher in order to understand the entire base of the research which would help the researcher together appropriate information for the next sections.
The literature review chapter explains various motions and prospects of development in tourism all across the world. Concept of tourism development and factors which affects the development in tourism on determining Sustainable Tourism Development is explained in this section. Butler’s theory of the tourism development has been eventually included in the section along with the impacts on the society of developing tourism which is eventually explicated. The researcher has also gained knowledge on the various which come across the path of developing tourism as well as identified the gaps in present and previous literature works on Tourism Development.
Developing tourism in the context of sustainable development can be evaluated in terms of Sustainable Tourism and the less developed areas of the world. Sustainable tourism takes complete account of the current as well as future economic environmental and social impacts and eventually addresses needs of the visitors, industry environment along with the host communities. As indicated by Buhalis and Fletcher, (2014), guidelines as well as management practices of the development in Sustainable Tourism have been applicable to every form of the tourism within the types of the destinations involving mass tourism as well as various niche segments of tourism.Development of tourism is determinedby the aspect which is related to the proper understanding of the needs and satisfaction level of the customer that guides refreshment and freshness. The development of tourism in a Society Guided by aspects that is related nearly to the development of
Principles of sustainability apparently refers to economic environmental as well as social cultural aspects regarding the development of tourism along with a favourable balance that is supposed to be established among three dimensions for guaranteeing the long-term sustainability. As addressed by Bimonte and Punzo, (2016), development of tourism on the tourist destination must make the optimal utilisation of the environmental resources which constitute the prime element within development of tourism and maintenance of them efficient ecological processes along with helping in conservation of natural biodiversity and heritage. As supported by Stylidiset al. (2014), development of tourism events will include respecting social cultural authenticity related to the host communities buy conserving built as well as living socio-cultural heritage along with the traditional values as well as contributing to the intercultural tolerance and understanding.
In case of making sure that there is clear understanding of you be related to the development of tourism it is to be clearly understood that success of tourism is not only based upon the operation of the government but also to the understanding of the people of society. It is essential also to understand that achievement of organisation and successful factors up Tourism are always on the theory of the definition of development of tourism. For the most information related to the tourism development of the sector is inevitable so as to explore much of its potential.
Various factors determine the development of tourism all across the world like the area of Cambridge. The different factors could be evaluated as:
Social factors:among the social factors a favourable climate as well as beautiful sceneries our Prime factors which affect the development of tourism. A favourable climate could be considered as one of the most significant characteristics of the attraction or any specific tourist destination. Warm and pleasant climate with until presence of sunshine may attract the tourists coming from colder and temperate regions. As evident by Buhalis and Fletcher, (2014), again tourists who belong to summer areas naturally migrate towards call regions and seek pleasure of the cold and fresh environment.
Beautiful and attractive sites of different places are the tourism booms which attract the attention of Tourists and invite them to visit their places more than once. Therefore it becomes quite essential to make any particular tourist spot beautiful as well as impressive in order to grab the attention of different tourists who expect to visit worthy places for relaxation (Sánchez-Rivero and Cárdenas-García, 2014).
Socio-economic factors: Distinct social economic factors eventual influence development of the tourism in the places which are backdated for promoting tourism and lack attention from different tourists. The social economic factors include accessibility, accommodation, ancillary services and amenities. Accessibility refers to easy access for the tourists to travel through distinct transportation modes such as the railways, water, air and roads. In the viewpoint of Wang and Ap, (2013), each and every tourist destination must have these accessibilities for better convenience of the tourists and ignore being a remote the destination which shall not be a good idea for attracting the tourist. As contradicted by Prideaux, (2015), tourist destinations which are the interest of tourists are required to be capable sufficiently for providing better accommodation as well as catering facilities. Accommodation types as per the tourist preferences and choices are based on standard of their living and their lifestyles, affordability as well as expected nature of services. Brida and Zapata, (2014) stated that classification of the accommodation centres based upon the ratings such as 5 stars and 7 stars are quite essential for the tourists to make their choices as well as plan trips accordingly. Tourism prospers mostly in the areas where there is good lodging as well as food facilities at reasonable costs. As inferred by Getz, (2013), growth and development of the tourism at any specific place is eventually influenced by the crucial factors such as the maintenance of tourism activities in the sites such as skiing paragliding roping fishing shopping rowing and suffering adventures. Even availability of the emergency facilities depicts or influences the development of tourism. Again as supported by Hiemstra and Wong, (2013), if the tourist destinations are equipped by the ancillary services such as finance and banking, Internet as well as Telecom connectivity, insurance and hospitals then such places succeed in holding more tourists for longer time and eventually helps in boosting local economy to some extent.
Cultural factors: Historical as well as cultural factors such as the historical significance and places having Legacy of the rich and species cultural heritage attract most number of tourists. As observed by Beerl and Martin (2014), people usually enjoy as well as love exploring the destinations which have popular ancient monuments, castles, palaces of the earlier Queens and Kings as well as well as marvellous forts. Religious factors even effect or influence the development of tourism in many tourist places which are pilgrimage sites as people often seek inner peace and make pilgrims.
As per the Cohen’s theory of tourism in 1984 presented for identifying and understanding behaviour of tourists developing tourist destinations become easier once the preferences as well as sources of the tourist are easily recognised. Bimonte and Punzo, (2016) discussed that according to this theory basically four categories of the tourists are supposed to be explicitly identified unless the preferences for the activities as well as destinations of tours are being concerned. This theory also states that firstly, few groups of travellers and tourists specifically avail services of travel agents and are not observed to make any particular requests which leads to conclusion that the tourism development eventually depends upon the services provided by tourism agencies and their preferences. Second tourist groups which two process control over the decisions and make their own choices (Agarwal, 2016). Thirds groups of the tourists wish to visit new locations and explode them as well as plan their respective tour packages contributing to development of new destinations which are quite rare. Fourth category of the tourists is specifically known as drifters who seem to portray traits of wonders and spend longer time at a specific destination before travelling to another (Yoon et al. 2013).
Again Doxey’s theory of the tourism development as developed in 1975 has introduced an innovative concept popularly known as the equation index which basically presence the overview of ways by which tourist destinations are required to be developed as well as there exists subsequent reactions contributes to declination of tourist destinations. As described by Getz, (2013), the very first stage of the theory is popularly known as Euphoria stage where tourists are provided with a warm welcome and destinations present a hint of excitement in developing the tourism. Brida and Zapata, (2014) explained that the next stage comes apathy where tourist destinations have nothing to offer and therefore remains indifferent which is followed by the theory of annoyance where the tourists seem to disturb local balance as well as annoy local or native people. Antagonism therefore represents the last stage where the native people change in define the tourism as well as limiting inflow of the tourists by the help of public expression (Getz, 2013). Practical Applications of Doxey’s theory of Tourism Development has certainly help in recognising stages of the destinations and develops the tourist destination as per the behaviour of tourist.
As argued by Agarwal, (2016), carrying value addition to both theories that have been presented butler’s work has primarily revolved all around development of the tourist destinations owing towards having a belief as well as an underlying assumption to carry in the capacity as well as sustainability of the tourism. According to Agarwal, (2016), Butler’s identification regarding the fact of tourist destinations has contains an amount of fragility that led to development of this specific theory that is considered to be the benchmark in the monitoring as well as improvement of quality in the recent industry of tourism. As defined by the butler the tourist destination seems to contain within them and factors may amounts to destruction which would manage tourist destinations. Therefore the element of the self destruction requires for being controlled.
As explained by Brida and Zapata, (2014), the main purpose of the butler’s model lies in recognising the various ways in which the tourist Resorts develop and grow. Six stages of butler’s theory of the tourism development include exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline or the rejuvenation. Exploration and the involvement stage includes the discovery stage where the tourist destinations and to their services are identified by the experience is guided by few number of tourists who have visited certain places. In words of Agarwal, (2016), growth as well as the development stage recognises the success of tourist spots through the means of publicity as well as the willingness of people for visiting the same place more than once. Stagnation stage identify the issues are the problems that are faced by people or when the resort apparently goes out of friends and fashion that leads to the economic decline as well as under utilisation of the tourist infrastructure. Rejuvenation stage helps in developing more of the sustainable strategies depending upon a lower count of the visitors.
Several impacts can be addressed in the context of developing tourism over society and environment near by the tourist destinations. The impacts can be measured in terms of increase in income of the residents living in tourist destinations, greater opportunities of shopping and jobs, high demand for the female labour due to developing the construction works and increased expenditure of the housing and land. Vellas, (2011) addressed that the standard of living generally increases due to development in the tourism sectors as there is an increase in the general price of services and goods along with rental houses being the income source.
However, as argued by (Sánchez-Rivero and Cárdenas-García, 2014), scarcity of the essential goods at seasonal time periods is one of the major impacts of developing tourism including degradation of the commercial and cultural goods, increasing count of the resorts and hotels and change in commercial point of view of the local or native people (Vellas, 2011). Environmental impacts include social cost that is supposed to be paid by the uses of the environmental resources and therefore Sustainable Tourism must be planned in each and every tourist spots. Reduction in the immigrant population especially the higher qualified people as well as existence of the lower unemployment rates have observed to contribute to transformation of the tourism growth towards and economic development of the entire world (Van der Borg and Russo, 2015).
Cambridge can be observed as heading towards being a tourist disaster. If any proper measure is not properly placed for managing the increased visitor numbers then it could have been quite a problem for the language in order to develop tourism. It has become a fear that more than almost 140000 people flocked to city centre of Cambridge in a random morning which was uncontrollable and many researchers have mark disease as very disagreeable experience. As discussed by Brida and Zapata (2014), Chinese have decided that Cambridge would be one of the essential parts of Europe and a journey is one of the must-haves and Cambridge is heading towards the tourist disaster. Cambridge therefore needs to follow lead of the overrun destination such as Barcelona and then as well as implement the control over numbers of visitors. However, as argued by Beerl and Martin (2014), Butler’s theory could be effective and bring productivity in managing Cambridge tourism development. The Universal city has been adored by many international tourists along with day strippers for the charm and sites. As evident by Vellas (2011), frustrated residents have even complained about overcrowded pavement and traffic problems after almost 140000 hours visit the city centre of Cambridge. Locals has given complaints about the traffic congestion which is caused by the tourist coaches and holidaymakers who had gradually paid greater attention to mobile phones and cameras than the surroundings. Again, as contradicted by Brida and Zapata, (2014), Cambridge is promoting many areas in order to attract tourists from all across the world in order to bring sustainable tourism facility in Cambridge. As supported by Getz (2013), due to this problem of over-headed tourists in the destination, they were literally banned in Thailand due to the protection of coral reefs and even the Balearic Islands of Spain. Many researchers have been under covered focusing over bringing the external and internal balance in the city along with implementations of many development policies. As supported by Yoon et al. (2013), another important issue in tourism of Cambridge had been the fact that it is exposed to several indirect and direct impacts from the climatic change. Contribution of the tourism to the emissions of Greenhouse gas (GHG) is increasing. In the viewpoint of Brida and Zapata (2014), complete uncertainty is developed about the reaction of tourists to effects of the climate. Huge number of visitors come to Cambridge in order to make sight scenes and gather experiences through the tourism. This has already resulted in expedition of the natural resources and it has been quite difficult to preserve the natural resources in most of the areas of Cambridge as people often think about deploying the use of natural resources buy their regular or general activities. Due to these persisting issues, Cambridge has been encountering largest tourism development problems all across the world and it is therefore required to manage the governance of tourism sector.
As mentioned by Van der Borg and Russo, (2015). Earlier literary works have hardly focused on butler’s theory of Tourism Development, but this research paper focuses on the practical applications of butler’s theory in developing tourism as well as identifies ample factors of the drivers of developing tourism. The Research paper eventually explains impacts of the tourism development of society and environment. The concerned research paper is much advanced than the previous literature works because the previous papers have particularly focused on sustainable development of tourism and its importance. However, this paper critically examines the importance of butler’s theory as well as identifies different factors determining the tourism development. Earlier researchers have carried out research both accumulating primary as well as secondary data but in this research the researcher has chosen only primary data to be collected for both quantitative as well as qualitative analysis. A survey session is carried out for collecting the primary data but no inferential statistics along with descriptive statistics have been computed over the accumulated data.