3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in period of change
A leader in the organisation is responsible for motivating and inspiring the work force that ultimately lead to high productivity. He is responsible for tapping the potential of the human resource and enables them to work to achieve the organisational goals. The style of leadership is determinant of the culture of the company and ultimately lead to motivating the workforce.
The types of leadership style and their impact on employee motivation
Autocratic leadership –
This is the style that currently exists at Baresi as the management have entire control over the workforce. People are given directions that they merely need to follow by the leaders. At Baresi the opinion of the employees and their suggestions are not taken. In this style of leadership as currently seen at Baresi the motivation of the employees are quite low as they do not feel valued (Amstrong, 2006).
Democratic leadership –
In this style the power of taking the final decision lies in the hands of the leaders, but the other team members do have a role to participate in the process of decision making. Baresi by adopting this style can ensure employee motivation. In this style all the workforce of Baresi will be clear about their roles and responsibilities, which currently lacks in the organisation.
Laissez-faire leadership – In this style the managers has the role just to observe and the employees work ensuring the organisation goals on their own. The employees have authority and the discretion to take decisions. Baresi by adopting this style can lead to achieve better organisational communication and better team work (Amstrong, 2006).
Various theories on motivation have been produced so far. They can be classified as content theories that highlight what do the employees need in order to be motivated and process theories that stresses on process to achieve employee motivation.
Maslow’s theory of needs – Maslow proposed that the human needs are like a pyramid having four levels. Once the lower level gets satisfied the other level of need starts to exist.
So it is the tendency of humans to work for the satisfaction of the basic need levels first and then go for the satisfaction of the higher levels of needs such as safety, social, esteem and self-actualization.
Herzberg identified the human needs by a two factor approach, the motivators and the hygiene factors. Motivator factors are the ones that motivate the employees in their work places whereas the hygiene factors prevent employee motivation.
Figure showing Herzberg’s two factor theory.
VROOM, V.H., (1964) proposed the expectancy theory and suggested that the employees have the capacity to evaluate that what kind of behaviour will result in fetching them rewards in the organisation and better results. So they find a job attractive that has motivation to get the rewards.
Motivational theories endeavor to disclose what persuades individuals to act the way they do. Motivational theories can be connected to working environment settings to reveal insight into why a few workers work harder or are more dedicated than others, which can lead administrators to see how to rouse every representative to perform at crest levels. Seeing how to apply motivational speculations in the working environment can take your authority aptitudes to the following level.
Use customary and inventive pay systems to influence the motivational theory. This advances the reason that for every particular errand, representatives will advance a measure of exertion equivalent with their apparent estimation of the pay they will get. Representatives who oppose tackling new employment obligations, asserting “I’m not being paid for this,” serve as a perfect illustration of the anticipation at work.
Give out liberal rewards to top entertainers, and utilization impalpable compensates in extra to money related remuneration to achieve workers on a more profound level, requesting a more profound level of duty to organization objectives.
Foundation worker advancement programs, representative acknowledgment projects and a positive, open organization society to take advantage of the obtained motivational theory. This expresses that all individuals are in a general sense propelled by three needs, with one need continually being more grounded than the others. As indicated by this hypothesis, all workers intuitively look for either individual accomplishment, social acknowledgment or force.
The analyst Abraham Maslow built up a hypothesis that proposes we, people, are roused to fulfill five essential needs. These needs are orchestrated in an order. Maslow proposes that we look for first to fulfill the least level of necessities. When this is done, we look to fulfill each larger amount of need until we have fulfilled everything five needs.
While current exploration demonstrates a few inadequacies with this hypothesis, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory remains a vital and straightforward inspiration device for chiefs to comprehend and apply.
The Hierarchy of Needs is as per the following:
- Physiological Needs (essential issues of survival, for example, pay and stable livelihood)
- Security Needs (stable physical and passionate environment issues, for example, advantages, annuity, safe workplace, and reasonable work rehearses)
- “Belongingness” Needs (social acknowledgement issues, for example, companionship or participation at work)
- Regard Needs (positive mental self portrait and admiration and acknowledgment issues, for example, occupation titles, decent work spaces, and prestigious employment assignments.)
- Self-Actualization Needs (accomplishment issues, for example, working environment self-sufficiency, testing work, and topic master status at work)
With Maslow’s hypothesis, a representative’s starting accentuation on the lower request needs of physiology and security bodes well. By and large, a man starting their vocation will be extremely concerned with physiological needs, for example, sufficient wages and stable wage and security needs, for example, advantages and a sheltered workplace. We all need a decent pay to address the issues of our family and we need to work in a steady domain.
Representatives whose least level needs have not been met will settle on occupation choices in view of pay, wellbeing, or steadiness concerns. Likewise, representatives will return to fulfilling their least level needs when these needs are no more met or are undermined, (for example, amid a financial downturn).
This places an additional commitment on directors to act others consciously when troublesome hierarchical choices, for example, staff decreases must be actualized. Hard usage of troublesome choices will bring about the remaining representatives in the association to feel undermined about the capacity or yearning of the association to keep on meeting their physiological and security needs.
Once these essential needs are met, the representative will need his “belongingness” (or social) needs met. The level of social connection a representative wishes will differ in light of whether the worker is a thoughtful person or outgoing individual. The key point is that workers longing to work in a situation where they are acknowledged in the association and have some cooperation with others.
This implies compelling interpersonal relations are fundamental. Chiefs can make a domain where staff participation is compensated. This will support interpersonal viability.
Progressing administrative correspondence about operational matters is likewise a vital segment of meeting representative’s social needs. Representatives who are “kept oblivious” about operational matters and the feasible arrangements of the association frequently feel like they are a hierarchical pariah. (This last point is particularly essential for virtual workers whose nonattendance from the workplace puts an additional commitment on administrators to keep these representatives occupied with authoritative correspondences.)
With these needs fulfilled, a worker will need his more elevated amount needs of regard and self-completion met. Regard needs are fixed to a worker’s picture of himself and his yearning for the appreciation and acknowledgment of others.
Regardless of the fact that an individual would not like to move into administration, he likely would not like to do likewise correct labor for a long time. He may need to be on an undertaking group, finish a unique errand, learn different errands or obligations, or extend his obligations in some way.
Broadly educating, occupation improvement, and exceptional assignments are well known systems for making work additionally remunerating. Further, permitting workers to partake in choice making on operational matters is an effective system for meeting a worker’s regard needs. At long last, images of achievement, for example, a significant employment title, occupation advantages, grants, a pleasant office, business cards, work space, and so forth are additionally essential to a representative’s regard.
The imperative thought for chiefs is that they must give prizes to their workers that both originate from the association and from taking the necessary steps itself. Prizes should be adjusted to have a most extreme impact.
With self-completion, the representative will be keen on development and individual improvement. He will likewise should be talented at what he does. He may need a testing occupation, a chance to finish further training, expanded flexibility from supervision, or self-sufficiency to characterize his own procedures for meeting hierarchical targets. At this most elevated amount, chiefs concentrate on advancing a situation where a worker can meet his own self-realization needs.
The fundamental thought of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is that our needs are always showing signs of change. As one need is met, we covet different needs. This bodes well. Will the raise we got 3 years back rouse us for the following 10 years? Will the testing employment we started 5 years prior have the same impact on us today? Will the execution honor we got a year ago totally fulfill our requirement for acknowledgment for whatever is left of our lives?
At Baresi restaurants the case study indicates that the employees feel not motivated at all. The employees lack any decision making power and the only system of reward being followed is the financial rewards system.
So the Hertzberg two factor theories will be suitable in this organisation as it needs to lay stress on the motivators and the hygiene factors as well to ensure that the managers are able to keep the staff motivated. So the managers at Baresi needs to focus on the Motivators that includes work challenges, work recognition and responsibilities for employees in the organisation that would give the workforce at the restaurant satisfaction regarding the I intrinsic component of the job .
Equity theory informs managers that it is needed for employees to adjust their performance and outputs for perceiving equitable results this theory is useful for managers in order to influence the employees to deliver the required output (Akers, 2015).
Also they need to consider the Hygiene factors that would include the status of the employees in the organisation, security of the job. Working conditions and fringe benefits as well, these are the factors whose absence gives dissatisfaction to the employees (Akers, 2015).
Group is defined as two or more people interacting with each other to achieve a common goal. Working in groups in the organisation enables faster and easier achievement of objectives. Group dynamics is the way people interact together in a group. The nature of the group influences the performance in the organisation.
Groups can be formal and informal in nature. The formal groups are created and maintained with the purpose of fulfilling the needs and tasks in accordance with the mission of the organisation. Informal groups are created because of the social and psychological forces that operated in the workplace.
Mullins in his study about the group behaviour in the hospitality industry indicates that the employees are expected to have great customer serving attitude and be equipped with team working skills (Mullins, 2008). Kuslovan (2003) suggests that the group behaviour has direct relationship with the quality of the organisation, commitment of the employees and the turnover.
Kuslovan suggests that in the hospitality and the food industry employees suffer from Hallo and Horn effect, their good pre-employment test results so if the employees in the food and hospitality industry show low performance later on they are typed as low performers. This is halo effect. Horn effect is when the employees are surrounded by negative halo from the beginning impacting their performances later on.
As working in the hospitality industry is stressful, it is associated with working in multiple shifts, heavy physical and manual work and emotional needs. At Hilton team building and consulting, conflict management is used to manage the stress of the employees in the industry.
4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations
In the context of the Baresi restaurant the factors that inhibit and promote team work are;
Diversity – In an organisation having employees of diverse culture and background the team work is effective. As owing to diversity the team has more creativity and innovative skills. All this will lead to awareness and members will learn to respect individual differences. At Baresi it is seen that there is disequilibrium established in the male to female ration of staff which is 65:35. But there is diversity in the constitution of the employees they are from different geographic location. Large population of the employees are from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, South Asia and Africa. The thing lacking in their effective team dynamics is that they have only the basic qualifications and no proper training mechanism is implemented.
Communication – It is very important in effective team dynamics. Open and clear communication is highly lacking at Baresi restaurant heavily inhibiting the development of effective teamwork. There is no participative culture and system of clear and open communication at the restaurant the higher management levels only have the authority of one way communication.
Leadership – At Baresi the autocratic leadership is inhibiting the effective team management. Leaders play an important role in collaborating and coordinating the team efforts and their important role is to encourage the team members to speak what they feel and think in the team meeting. This is totally lacking at BARESI.
Team building exercises – effective team building requires shared practices and experiences. The avoidance of any team building activity is negatively impacting the development of effective teams at the restaurant. There is lack of interdepartmental harmony at Baresi suggesting that the restaurant lacks team building exercises (Wolski, 2015).
Factors that would inhibit the effective team work at Baresi would be internal conflict between the various members of the team, lack of harmony and sync between the workforce and the management, lack of proper training and skills sets in the members of the team, disagreements and mental barriers.
The restaurant and the hospitality industry has become highly revolutionised by adopting new technology. This seems lacking at Baresi. Restaurants are viewing technology as an effective means to increase their profitability and sales. Service sector organisation such as Tesco is using technology to make it a better experience for their customers. Restaurants have enabled electronic payment, internet ordering, billing process etc. to make the experience better and convenient for their customers. New technology can enable Baresi to free their staff capacity and enhance the sense of job satisfaction of the employees as the use of technologies such as internet and intranet will increase the ease if internal communication within the restaurant and ease the work of the employees. Taking and processing orders will be easy. Use of email for marketing, mobile devices, groupware and computer technologies will lead to efficient team management at Baresi.
Organisational culture and structure is determinant of the way people will behave in the workplace. So it is important to stress on the aspect of having a better and amicable structure and culture in which the employees feel valued and heard. Organisation such as Baresi that has not undergone any organisational restricting faces the difficulties of low employee satisfaction, high turnover and absenteeism. It is highly important for the leader to have visionary, dynamic character and implement methods and processes for employee motivation, efficient reward system and team building which will ultimately lead to high output and efficiency. Adopting new technology is also highly important this will lead to organisational effectiveness by making people work in better and advanced conditions and also create value to the customers.
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