Process Illumination

Process Illumination  process of scanning relies largely on the process of illumination. The identity card of this lady needs to be placed in glass plate of the scanner. This is a secondary source of digital image; since, it is already being converted into the digital format through many processes and tProcess Illuminationhen, clubbed as an identity card. Then, it is scanned into digital form for further uses.

Use of Biographical Images

This shows the image from 1912, Royal Society Fellow. This is an example of Biographical records of the 250th anniversary of the Royal Society. This is considered to be a secondary source of digital image, considering that at the mentioned era, digital imaging was not present and traditional photography was employed for clicking the legendary images. This has been further scanned and converted into digital form for preservation in the future generations.
This is another source of secondary form of image. This is a letter that had been written by the legendary, Kurt Cobain as his suicide note and had been published in many a newspapers till date. Hence, this image has been taken from a published article which embed the letter within it. This is also supposed to one of the major sources of secondary image collection method and converting it into digital format.

TASK 2

2.1 Formats and fundamentals

In this section, we will be discussing about the processing of raw image into file formats like JPEG, TIFF etc. For the same RAW FILE format should be taken as an example. To consider the case of processing image, we will be taking into account the raw pixel from the CCD of camera. This goes through the process of development, demosaicing, by locating the color values. The developing stage means to convert the raw file into a standardized image file. This is then stored into the memory car after conversion. This may also involve reversible and irreversible methods of the same.
For this, one should also know the concept of RAF images. RAF refers to the raw image format found in mainly the FUJI cameras. This is the format that has not yet been processed and hence, cannot be obtained  in photo or printed form. This can actually be used as photo negatives. Compared to other image formats, the color gamut is quite high. However, it represents the exact quality and formation of images, the process of re-processing such images needs extra attention and time; hence, the photographers are not very inclined to this format.

Following are the steps in conversion of raw image files into JPEG and TIFF:

DEMOSAICING

This can be termed as a process that is inclusive of processing raw image data. This is quite helpful in conversion in a less amount of time, as compared to other methods. This process works very effectively in a PC as compared to the cameras. This is more due to its high processing power than the digital cameras. Since it offers better algorithms in image processing, it ensures better image quality, less noise etc. The image resolution is softened a bit when converted into JPEG image (Cofield, 2005).

FLEXIBLE WHITE BALANCE

This process is able to match the real colors; since the digital camera is not able to perceive things in the real way, white balance helps to eradicate unrealistic colors. White Balance that is flexible, set two times, one during the conversion from RAW file to JPEG and during the post-processing process.
Now, it’s turn to explain one of the most important image processing techniques to be employed in data image processing. Following are the most important digital image processing techniques:

  • Pixelation
  • Anisotropic Diffusion

Pixelation
Pixelation refers to blurring of an image; in this case, the image look pretty fine when it is not zoomed in, however on zooming, the image gets blurred off. Here, the naked eye is able to differentiate between individual pixels and observe them. However, this can also be performed intentionally to omit salacious scenes in movies or censor vulgarity. This is an important scene of image processing Sachs, J (1996).
Pixelate view of image
Anisotropic Diffusion
Image after the noise is reduced
This is the method of alleviating the noise present in the images. This is extremely important as this method is used to eliminate noise in images without eradicating relevant parts in the image. This is quite relevant for representation and interpretation of the whole image. This helps in the smoothening of the image and the resulting into linear structures. This can be expressed by the diffusion constant equation.

Process Illumination

2.2 Digital management technique to store imagery

In today’s era, storage of digital images have become quite convenient, as well as important. In this section, we will be taking a look       at the process that is involved in this concept. Mainly, the digital form are termed to be compressions. These are mainly of two categories i.e. lossy and lossless.
Lossy Compressions
These are compressions in which the information related to images is diminished and it not retain. This is important as well as in wide use in images.
Extensions: .JPG, .JPEG, .JIF, .JFIF and .JPE
Lossless Compressions
In Lossless Compressions, the image information is retained. Hence, it is highly important in archival resources. In medical, comical imaging, it is highly relevant.
Extensions: .BMP, .TGA, .TIFF, .GIF, .PNG and .MNG  (Cofield, 2005).
In the process of compression, it should be considered that image data is not lost and does not end up being altered to a great extent.
The management part can be done through data documentation method. The process comprises the following:
Names
Levels
Description
Codes
Explanation of codes
Listing of data
Metadata
Metadata is the place where all these details are listed. With the help of metadata, one gets to find out any explanatroy form of research. Through the image metadata, one can know the owner of the image, copyright validations, contact notes, the recording device etc. date of recording the image, compression. Order Now