Occupational Psychology Discussed Assignment Help
In this task, different perspectives to the Occupational Psychology will be discussed with special reference to the Swan Coopers and their way of operations. The theories and their applications in this scenario would be analysed.
Understand the different perspectives in Occupational Psychology
Give a short explanation of each of the three approaches and then, for each one separately, explain how it might be used as a means of starting to change the situation that currently exists at Swan-Cooper.
There are basically three major theoretical approaches to the Occupational Psychology and these have been explained as under:
- Behaviourist – This the theoretical approach that was based on the classical conditioning model. It states that tendencies of behaviour are determined by the associations that are immediately experienced due to the stimulus that is experienced from the environment. The behaviour, its patterns and related expressions vary from individual to another individual.
- Cognitive – This is the field of psychology that deals with the processes of the mind with respect to the solving of the problems, understanding of the situations and learning that is achieved from it.
- Humanistic – This is said to be an approach or the psychological branch that measures the human approach towards the life and his needs. These may be different for different individuals and are majorly of types like: death, self-identity, self-actualization, freedom and meaning for the self-life as a perception (McKenna, 2000).
These approaches will certainly be applied to the case of Swan Coopers. Swan Coopers had the culture with the paternalistic approach of its management towards the workforce. The workforce was only aligned and concentrated towards the work rather than aspiring for the management position. The culture was not very open and transparent. People had adjusted to those circumstances as per the humanistic and behaviouristic approaches. The people who were able to adjust to those conditions only joined the organization. Suddenly there has been a change in the culture as some American Company has taken it over and believes in the open and transparent culture. Cognitive or the problem solving approach will play a great role in this as now the people would be able to join in this culture and others would no longer be able to sustain.
Make an assessment of the usefulness of a scientific approach in investigating the behaviour of the work force at Swan Cooper now that the new management has decided to make such big changes.
Scientific approach is a step by step approach to solve the problem in the organization related to the psychology at workplace. The new management has taken over at Swan Cooper and they would desire that all the employees remain competitive, open, supportive, coordinating and follow the transparent culture whereas the culture and psychology of people at Swan Coopers has been entirely different. The earlier management had always taken the workforce under paternalistic approach. The Scientific method is useful for the management as it believes in a step by step approach. This has following steps that new management can easily utilize to solve the problem:
- Identification of the problem and formulation of hypothesis – The new management has to assess the type of people and the amount of change that is required by the company (Katz & Kahn, 1978).
- Designing of the solution with a checking of the impact of various variable and parameters – The changes cannot be brought about immediately rather proper working has to be done so that as per the situation the changes are brought.
- Performing of the experiment with the help of control and experiential groups – The groups and their reaction to the change in the processes, practices and the principles has to be analysed and evaluated so that suitable action is taken in this regard.
- Hypothesis evaluation – Based on the study and evaluation, Hypothesis that was taken will be evaluated for its validity.
- Results Communication – Based on the analysis, discussion and evaluation, assessment and results have to be communicated on the process that has to be followed for the change process.
Make an assessment (evaluation) of the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative approaches to understanding the situation in the company.
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the understanding of the situation of the company will help the new management in analysing the amount of change that has taken place and is required to be brought within the organization. The strengths and Weaknesses are mentioned as under:
- It will help in measuring the exact figures and the level of problem.
- It will give the numeric calculation that will even help in the calculation of the time period that would be taken by the company in bringing about the change (Krauss et al, 2005).
- This will tell us on the theories and the principles that could easily be applied in the given circumstances.
- It will help in designing the overall and practical approach to the change process.
- It will give the calculation of the level of problem but how and when it will be solved will not be received from it.
- There may be measuring or calculation errors that may persist in this approach.
- This will give the exact applicability of the theories and associated philosophies that may be applied in given situations of Swan Coopers.