Network Routing And Switching

Network Routing And Switching | Administration Single Organisation

Question Number Network Routing And SwitchingMark


Mark earned
Question 1: (10 marks)
Routing table of router R2:


MaskNetwork addressNext-hop addressInterface

Routing table of router R3:

MaskNetwork addressNext-hop addressInterface


10 (5 for each table)
Question 2: (6 marks)
a)Given IP address range is and this belongs to Class B

Network Routing And Switching | Administration Single OrganizationSubnet mask address is is the broadcast address

Minimum possible host is

Maximum possible host is

So the total number of IP addresses in this network range is 232-22 = 210 = 1024

DepartmentSubnet addressLast addressMask
Head Office139.145.57.0139.145.57.6226
Cust Services139.145.57.64139.145.57.7828
c)Given address range is

Number of IP addresses available are 1024

IP addresses allocated for the departments = 211

So the number of unallocated IP address = 813 

Question 3: (4 mark)
a)From the given data, 5600 bytes is the IP datagram size and 1500 bytes is the MTU size.

For every MTU, 20 bytes is allocated for the IP header and thus the size of data in this IP packet is 1500-20 = 1480 bytes

4 bytes are required for the further calculations and this is achieved by ceiling the values

Starting and ending bytes for 1st packet are 1 and 1480 respectively

Starting and ending bytes for 2nd packet are 1 and 1480 respectively 1481 and 2960

Starting and ending bytes for 3rd packet are 2961 and 4440 respectively

Starting and ending bytes for 4th packet are 4441 and 5580 respectively

b)Fragmentation offset of 1st packet is 0

Fragmentation offset of 2nd  packet is 185

Fragmentation offset of 3rd packet is 370

Fragmentation offset of 4th packet is 555

c)20 bytes are always required for the IP header in the packets and this size is reduced or deducted from the available packets automatically. So the more bytes are necessary for the packet arrival at the next destination

Network Routing And Switching | Administration Single Organization

Question 4: (15 marks)
a)Autonomous Systems

An autonomous system is part of the router policy. It is a single network or a combined group of networks put together and controlled by a single network administrator. The administration is done on behalf of a single organization. It is also known as a routing- domain. It is also given a unique number which can be used globally and in known as the Autonomous System Number. The communication in A-S is routing information. It uses the Interior – gateway – Protocol for the communication. When information sharing is with other Autonomous Systems it uses the Border Gateway Protocol. Prior to using the BGP the Exterior Gateway protocol was used. In the future the like Protocol that will replace the BGP is the OSI Inter-Domain -Routing -Protocol. (Rouse, 2017)

Inter- Domain Routing

IDR is a super-netting routing method. It permits flexible allocation of I.P. addresses. This has increased the availability of the internet addresses. This is used in combination with NAT and has increased the use and the importance of IPv4 addresses. One routing table represents a collection of networks that are there in the forward – path which require no listing on that particular gateway. (Rouse,2017)

Intra-Domain Routing

In Intra domain routing the information is distributed within the same aggregation of networks in the Autonomous System. The protocols that are used are the R.I.P, O.S.P.F, E.l.G.R.P and the IS-IS. These Protocols focus on distributing the routes depending upon the quality of the link in the bandwidth, latency and load balancing. (Li,2017)

b)The protocols that are used in Inter Domain Routing are

Ø  Border -Gateway -Protocol

Ø  Interior – Gateway –Protocol

The inter domain protocols that are used are:

Ø  R.I.P

Ø  O.S.P.F

Ø  E.l.G.R.P


The inter domain protocols are used to assess the link state of the network, replicate the routing schedules, it also informs its neighbours with the information that it has thus having a clear idea of the network topology. When link states change the inter domain routing protocols carry out the needed changes in their information and pass the changed information forward.

For Intra Domain protocols the assessment and the acknowledgments that are essential with other networks without compromising the security of their own networks, they establish the routing able and assess the link between tow network aggregates. Different protocols are needed as the Intra Domain protocols are for space and fast transfers while the inter domain slows the speed of WAN for effective communication. (Wansing,2004)

c) The routing challenges that are faced with the current set of methods are

Ø  Routing Flexibility is limited

Ø  The upload time is slow

Ø  It is not centralized

Ø  There are issues in the capacity of the network


d) Embedded routing provides secure data over wireless or wired networks, they perform well, and they can be integrated into sophisticated network systems for quality in voice, video and link communications. They can be used in MANETs. This type of routing can support multicast –streaming in the case of extensible routing it is an advanced routing platform that supports growth and increases the profit margin for businesses though scalability, an efficient technique and flexibility. Several functions can be performed on the extensible routing platform such as I.P routing, peering. Multi- protocol switching of labels and other infrastructure – services are also supported.2.5
e)RaaS can solve the issues mentioned above as it will provide a workload – balance, the territory for the route will be pre-planned, and the deliveries’ sequence will be efficient and accurate. The route changes will become dynamic, the distances of the routers for delivery will be shortened, the daily difficulties of delivery will not be there and the time taken for delivery will be less. Complex routing problems can be solved n a few seconds, the costs of delivery will be lower, there will be efficiency and cost savings in the hosted deployment and routing will be a service platform on its own with independent functions. Specialized routing functions will minimize the issues that have been mentioned creating less consumption of energy. (Fry,Walz, 2017)


Fry, J., Walz, C.(2017) Routing as a Service(RaaS) Route Smart, retrieved on May 19th 2017

Li, T.(2017) What is the Difference between Inter Domain and Intra Domain Routing, Quora, retrieved on May 19th 2017

Rouse,M.(2017) Autonomous Systems,(AS) Tech Target, retrieved on May 19th 2017

Rouse, M.(2017) CIDR(Classless Inter Domain Routing), Tech Target, retrieved on May 19th 2017

Wansing, C.T.(2004) Inter Domain/Intra Domain Routing Protocols, Techist Forums, retrieved on May 19th 2017

Question 5: (5 marks)
Place a value, with brief explanation, for (read question 5):

Version: 6 and this is constant for IPv6 packets

Payload length: 0, due to the packet size i.e. jumbo packet

Next header: 1 due to the flow label values

Hop limit: 15 and this is the maximum limit for the jumbo IPv6 packets

Source Address: 581E: 14562314: ABCD: : 1211

Destination Address: 581E:1456:2314:ABCD::2211

5 (for each value, .5 for valid value, .5 for explanation

David Marks

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