Information Systems in Organization
An Information Systems in Organization is used in the organization in order to store, organize and collect information. In order to communicate the information to the employees of the organization, information systems are very valuable. Therefore, information systems are very important for the organization. Traditional methods of storing information might damage it or the information may be lost. However, when information systems are used to store and organized data, there are very less changes of it being destroyed. Marks and Spencer is a big brand and using information systems since long. The organization is present in many countries; therefore, flow of information from the headquarters needs to reach the other offices without any time lag. In such a situation, information systems are very useful. The other attribute of information system is, the data or the information that is stored is much secured. In this assignment, various vital facts regarding information system will be deduced that helps an organization to keep its data secured.
A.C1.1 Evaluate the information needs of at least four functional areas of your chosen organisation.
Marks & Spencer is a UK based multinational retailer that sells home decor, clothing, and luxury and food items. Marks & Spencer currently has more than 900 stores across the UK, with a workforce of 84,939 workers. Its international expansion has generated annual revenue of £10.622 billion in the year 2017 (Marksandspencer.com, 2018).
It was originally established in 1884 as a clothing line and gradually diversified its sale of different items of home decor, luxury and more. In order to maintain its current reputation in the market, Marks & Spencer needs to have an efficient management team with proper communication networks among its diverse operational departments. Over the years, Marks & Spencer has earned its name in the market due to not only its goods and services but also its management planning (Hannington, 2016). Information within the organization is consistently monitored and passed among various departments like HR, Finance and others. This facilitation of information is a vital factor is the smooth functioning of any organization.
A large and multinational organization like Marks & Spencer is located at different places where their staffs are not a homogenous mixture of identities, culture and language. In such a scenario, information becomes a valuable tool and resource for carrying out business tasks. According to Laudon and Laudon, (2016), the information gathered and processed must travel to all departments of the organization so that its motives and decisions are informed to every employee. In order to effectively communicate the company’s vision, mission, and goals for different short term and long-term projects, information through its functional areas need to be disseminated properly. Further, the information collected from market research and customer feedback also need to conveyed from one department to another so that the feedbacks are implemented in future plan of action and it can enhance growth of the organization. The current information system need is of an efficient operation management system, collaborative enterprise management, and process control system at Marks & Spencer.
Based on the above, the information needs for functional areas of Marks & Spencer is discussed below.
- Human Resources Department: According to Bailey et al., (2018), Human Resources Department or the HRD in a business organization is concerned of distribution of resources and people accordingly to suit the business objective. The current information management system in the HR team at Marks & Spencer is dedicated to allocating resources in accordance with skills and departments within the internal work structure. Hence, the information need is regarding skills of employees as well as technical specifications of equipments.
The human resource department at Marks & Spencer also deals with recruiting new talent to the organization. The training of these new individuals becomes the responsibility of the HRD. The information regarding new recruits, their knowledge and expertise as well as their progress during induction training programs need to be maintained.
It must be noted that before selecting new employees for various departments, HR managers at Marks & Spencer need to collect information from respective departments regarding the specificity of tasks to be performed under new job profiles. Further, recruitment procedures need to be finalized and strategized in a manner that has to be saved as information for future.
Other than these, the interview and selection of candidates would involve data handling regarding the prospective employee’s background and education. In addition to all this, the human resource department needs to maintain key informative data regarding the departmental performance, comparisons, appraisals, and ways of improvement based on research. It also has to monitor progress of employees and keep a back up of capabilities and skills of workers.
- Finance Department: The finance department of an organization is mainly concerned of maintain financial records, transactions and budgeting. At Marks & Spencer, the current information management system is prepares invoices, tenders, cash flow statements, and more. The company also keeps a record of its transactions with suppliers and other manufacturers along its distribution chain. In addition, the finance department also stores information regarding salaries of recruits, auditing of company procedures and other vital financial statements.
There is a need for developing an information system atMarks & Spencer’s finance department that helps in preparing annual budgets, quarter and half-quarterly financial plans and figures to improve internal resources. The department also stores information regarding payment of bills, electricity, payroll of employees and more. The department is also responsible for preparing a financial systems based on market research and analysis, giving annual reports of performance. These processes require an efficient information management system.
- Marketing & Sales department: Marks & Spencer generates revenue from its worldwide sale of goods. Hence, it becomes extremely important to maintain a marketing and sales information database to keep a record of its operations. The organizations have a huge pool of suppliers, customers and intermediaries who conduct sales with Marks & Spencer on a daily basis. There are information management systems that keep a record of these vital financial figures and landmarks that determine the annual profits of the retailer.
The need is fora management system that produces annual sales report, and stores them as bits of information within the sales department. Since the organization operates globally, it has a strong marketing plan, which is filled with information regarding promotional strategies, market trends and more. All of this need a process based information management system to store the information within the marketing and sales department.
In order to drive sales for a particular product, Marks & Spencer first had to obtain relevant market data and analyze demands or gaps for the product. This requires information in the form of facts, statements, and financial data. This kind of information is mainly collected from market analysis, audience surveys and questionnaire or feedback. All of this can now be held under the domain of marketing and sales department with the help of functional information management systems.