HND Study Guide
3.1 Motivation :
The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Simple acts such as eating are motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from reward to coercion.
3.2 Theories of motivation :
Alignment of aims, purpose and values between staff, teams and organization is the most fundamental aspect of motivation. The better the alignment and personal association with organizational aims, the better the platform for motivation.Where people find it difficult to align and associate with the organizational aims, then most motivational ideas and activities will have a reduced level of success. Motivational receptiveness and potential in everyone changes from day to day, from situation to situation. Get the alignment and values right, and motivational methods work better. Motivational methods of any sort will not work if people and organisation are not aligned. People are motivated towards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed. People want more. Motivational and inspirational quotes, poems, posters, motivational speakers and stories, team building games and activities, all develop employee motivation for sales and business staff in all kinds of organizations. Motivational and inspirational experiences improve employees’ attitudes, confidence and performance. Good leadership demands good people-motivation skills and the use of inspirational techniques. Motivational methods are wide-ranging, from inspirational quotes and poems, to team building games and activities, as ice-breakers, warm-ups and exercises for conferences, workshops, meetings and events, which in themselves can often be helpful for staff motivation too.
3.3 Motivational factors and role of motivational factors:
Frederick Herzberg was a well respected American who has contributed greatly to the way in which managers think about motivation at work. He first published his theory in 1959 in a book entitled ‘The Motivation to Work’ and put forward a two factor content theory which is often referred to as a two need system. It is a content theory which explains the factors of an individual’s motivation by identifying their needs and desires, what satisfies their needs and desires and by establishing the aims that they pursue to satisfy these desires. Herzberg’s original research was undertaken in the offices of engineers and accountants rather than on the factory floor and involved interviewing over two hundred employees. His aim was to determine work situations where the subjects were highly motivated and satisfied rather than where the opposite was true and his research was later paired with many studies involving a broader sampling of professional people. In his findings Herzberg split his factors of motivation into two categories called Hygiene factors and Motivation factors. The Hygiene factors can de-motivate or cause dissatisfaction if they are not present, but do not very often create satisfaction when they are present; however, Motivation factors do motivate or create satisfaction and are rarely the cause of dissatisfaction.
The two types of factors may be listed as follows in order of importance:
Hygiene Factors (leading to dissatisfaction):
Every company must have a policy to run effectively. If there is no policy the staff might get de-motivated. This policy demonstrate laws, objective and responsibilities of all the employees.
Supervision is basically a work done under supervision. This means that there should be someone to supervise the staff during work. if there is not superviser, this might create a problem for the company.
Relationship with Boss:
In every organization, the relationship between staff and manager is required. Only because of relationship, staff are less likely to be de-motivated.
Due to the large number of staff, the employer make some working condition. These conditions are the basic notes for the employees to follow. Without having work conditions the employees complete there work slowly.
Employees working in a organization must be paid of there work. this is really obvious if the employees are not paid on time, they will not work hard. This will de-motivate them in order to work.
Motivators (leading to satisfaction):
Achievement is one the factor which motivate the employees towards work. the rewards are given to those staff who work really hard and achievement something. Due to this employees put their interest toward achieving the rewards. Recognition:
Recognition of company is the most important factor. This does not only attract customers but also employees. People are keen to work in a well reputable company. If the company is well recognized, the staff of that company get motivated to this.
The work itself:
The working management attracts the employees to work as much they can. Because this shows them that everyone is working hard and there is no point not to work hard. Responsibility:
Each staff should be given some responsibility to work. if they are given the responsibility, they work hard and get motivated by the given responsibility.
Advancement in technology, which is used by the staff is really helpful to motivate the employees. This makes the work easy and quick for the employees. rather than working with old machines. Advancement of new machines motivate the employees.
4.1 Team work:
The process of working collaboratively with a group of people, in order to achieve a goal. Teamwork is often a crucial part of a business, as it is often necessary for colleagues to work well together, trying their best in any circumstance. Teamwork means that people will try to cooperate, using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between individuals.
4.2 Importance of Team Working :
Nowadays in business sector, team work plays the vital role. Organisations do not perform but the people. When we talk about the people, we consider the teamwork. Individuals can not perform as much as the team. Teams always recognize it self as a successful machines in achieving organizations goals. This is because of its characteristics which influence the performance of the organization. We can see in a team there will be different members involving in working toward its goals. Here we can see different skilled people as well as different individual behaviors. Team work gives a synergy mixing of these people.
4.3 Advantages of Team working :
Communication is the most important part of any company. Due to communication all the work is done in companies. And effective communication is needed for the completion good work. This all is done by team work. in the team all the staff good relation and are aware of each other. This help them to understand each other. Due to team work, manager are able communicate with staff.
Coordination is linked to effective communication. This is only possible due to team work. Coordination is most in any business. Through team work, we can easily achieve coordination between staff and team leader.
Every member of staff requires motivation in a sense of complement, money, award or bonus. This basically help staff to work hard and perform their duties effectively.
Synergy means, the combined power of a group of things when they are working together which is greater than the total power achieved by each working separately. Synergy is only gained through team work. staff only work as unit only the presence of team.
Most importantly goal is required to achieve something. If all the staff have the similar goal, the work will be more easier and quicker. this is only possible due to team work. working in a team, maintain the similar goal in staff.
Clearly defines responsibility:
In the team work, responsibilities of every staff is clearly defined. They are only subject to perform their own duties. This help the staff to do work as quicker as possible.
The only way of achieving flexibility of work from staff is through team work. when the staff work in a team they perform more sustainable then working individually. They are more flexible in working as team.
4.4 Improvement of Team working in Tesco:
Tesco always tries to implement changes in improving team work. Tesco is the only store which is well known of its decision making for team work. Team work in Tesco sets an example for other competitors. And other competitors like Asda, Sainsburry, Morrison, and Iceland follow the Tesco’s policies for improving team work. There are some ways which Tesco has recently introduced in order to have better team work. Some of them are explained here.
Appointment of team leaders:
Tesco is only store who first used team leader concept. Team leader is chosen from the staff due to his or her hard work. Team leader performs all those duties which were used to be perform by managers. Nowadays managers have lessen duties as in the past. These team leaders check the staff on a regular basis. They maintain the discipline between staff. Team leaders give different task to other staff and send income reports to headoffice. This method helps the team work to be improved in every sense.
New staff training :
Tesco gives training to the new recruited staff initially. This training covers all the information needed to work in a team. This is basically a practice before working in a team. New staff get used to work in a team by this training.
Task based Work:
Team leaders distribute the work between the staff. They give the task to each employee and confirm if they are doing well. This method is really good to get the most of work done. If all the staff are left to their own choice of work, this might cause argument between staff. And there will be no concept of team work.
In tesco there is always a chance of career development in staff . this develops the interest of staff to work hard in order to develop their career. Staff work efficiently in a team and produce effective result.
Proper check of work:
Team leaders maintain a proper check of the staff. This is needed, because it is not sure that all the staff are working properly. Proper check of work pressurizes the staff to work quickly and properly.
Awards on achievement:
This is obvious that every human want to get something in return of his effort and work. That is why tesco present awards to hardworking employees. And every staff who work effectively and show his skills are given the awards.