Essay Welfare State Assignment Help | Welfare State Development in the UK

Essay Welfare State Assignment Help | Welfare State Development in the UK

Essay Welfare State Assignment Help theoretical basis, the concept of the welfare state has been defined by early theorists from different perspectives. Briggs’s influential definition of a welfare state defines it as, “… a state in which power is deliberately used in an effort to modify the play of market forces in at least three directions; guaranteeing a Essay Welfare State Assignment Help | Welfare State Development in the UKminimum income to individuals or families irrespective of the market value of their property, narrowing the extent of insecurity by enabling the individuals and families to meet certain social contingencies (for example, sickness, old age, unemployment), and by offering all citizens a certain range of social services regardless of their status and social class” (Briggs, 2006, p. 17). Briggs has argued that his first two objectives are similar to the services that a social service state offers, such as allocating the society’s resources to lower the incidence ofpoverty, which should be at minimum level for prosperity, but third objective of offering all citizens a certain level of social services,concerns the achievement of the “optimum” level of welfare.

A welfare state is a broader concept than a social service system. As Titmuss suggested, it is inadequate to conflate the concept of a “welfare state” with the material social services offered by states, though these services must be considered to be (only) a part of the practices of welfare-ism. Rather, he argued that there are three systems which provide welfare, namely, social or public welfare, fiscal welfare, as well as occupational welfare. Among these, public welfare is thought to be more progressive, in income terms, than the others (Titmuss, 1963). There are a variety of welfare providers in any country Thus,“total welfare” within a society is delivered by the family or household, the market, and the state as well (Pierson & Castles, 2006).Providers determine the ways to deliver welfare, for example, fiscal welfare is done through taxes (the rights to which rest solely with governments), while the (local) state can also provide parts of total welfare through local authority housing. There are three models regarding the assessment of these providers. The Residual Welfare Model suggests that there are only two sources of welfare, namely,the family and market, while dedicated institutions come into play if these two are unsuccessful. The Industrial Achievement-Performance Model suggests that the welfare institutions are main providers who deliver welfare on the basis of merit, performance and productivity. Finally, there is the Institutional Redistributive Model which suggests that there are dedicated institutions in society delivering welfare outside the market on the basis of need (Titmuss,1974). These distinctions are important in understanding the changing approaches towards the welfare system with the passage of time.

Essay Welfare State Assignment Help

In modern times, the welfare state is linked to a social investment approach which generates so-called new welfare states (Esping-Andersen, Gallie, Hemerijck, & Myles, 2002). This is based on the view articulated by Esping-Andersen et al. (2002), that “the single greatest challenge we face today is how to rethink social policy so that, once again, labor markets and families are welfare optimizers and a good guarantee that tomorrow’s adult workers will be as productive and resourceful as possible” (p. 25). This seeks to make persons, families, or entire societies more adaptable to the various alterations they will face over their life cycles, for instance, altering career paths and job situations, emerging new social threats, populace change, climate variation etc. Such changes pose different challenges to the established welfare programs or social policy which end up outmoded due to these trials (Jenson, 2009).

Moreover, contemporarywelfare assistance is delivered in a variety of ways, ranging from direct cash payments to subsidies, coupons or lodging aids. Usually these grants are offered to specific citizens who are disabled, ill, old, unemployed, with young children and war veterans, but the target groups are contingent upon the program or country. For instance, there may be an eligibility criterion, such as checking the financial means of the person in question, or even conditional payment depending on specific behaviors of the person. Such welfare systems are normally offered by national governments (directly or through special-purpose agencies) or by privately-funded organizations (such as NGOs) or even in cooperation. Funding from public organizations originates from government taxes or other revenues, but in the case of Non-Governmental Organizations, this may come from personal or company donations (Rothstein, 1998).

Essay Welfare State Assignment Help | Welfare State Development in the UK

As an idea, social investment towards welfare have gained prominence in organizations like the OECD and the European Union (Pringle, 1998, Swaan, 1988, Taylor-Gooby, 2004). Considering the terms of policy goals and targeting, several studies have found that European Union strategies have not produced the visualized results (Abrahamson et al., 2005, Cousins, 1999, Schierup et al., 2006), while others found that OECD has taken more ideological step towards a emphasizing of a more social-democratic socialinvestment type (Svallfors, 2012). In regard of the spending on social investment for welfare, few authors discuss that in some policy fields and countries’ policy changes in the direction of socialinvestment but there is no no general trend (Gordon, 2006, Micklewright and Stewart, 2000). Others, at the same time, conclude that such a generalshift towards social investment is taking place (Gordon, 2006, van Oorschot et al., 2008).

The eights CEE member states who joined the EU in 2004, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Estonia, Latvia, andLithuanian, together with Bulgaria and Romania, whoentered the EU in 2007 wentthrough two radical changes in the past sixty-five years. The first was a shift from capitalism tostate-socialism in the 1940s and the second was from state-socialism back to capitalism after 1989(Buti et al., 1999). Therefore it is hard to apprehend them in a number of stable institutional characteristics. Because of multiple social, economic and political changes since 1989 it was impossible to place the new member states in a single group(Sobocki et al., 2006).Reforms since 1989 were making these systems ‘hybrid’ rather thanthoroughbred members of existing welfare regimes (Flora and Heidenheimer, 1981, Kofman and Sales, 1996, Taylor-Gooby and Lawson, 1993).Comparison of spending on social investment welfare policies based on spendingacross European welfare state in the last decade showed that severalcountries have increased their spending on social investment policies(Jensen and Kutsar, 2004).Order Now

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