Social Insecurity economic Development Kenya
  • June 1, 2018
  • David Marks
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Literature Review

The Study of news

Literature ReviewEvents are subjective to time and place. With increase in population, the occurrence of different kinds of events has increased simultaneously. It is important for people from diverse backgrounds to be aware about these events for better connectivity (Scollon, 2014). News is referred to the information that is associated with a current event. For instance, an earthquake that occurs in Japan is reported in the form of news to the people of America or Europe through mass media. The media of communicating news are numerable. However, primary modes include word of mouth, printing, broadcasting (through television or radio), etc. As per the views of Kadhim and Shaker al-Shaibani (2013), news has helped in scaling distances of farther countries to smaller ones by easy communication.

The diversity of news topics includes war, politics, education, society, environment, health, business, economics, sports, terrorism, etc. News has also transformed itself into basic connecting link between country governments and citizens (Elvestad, Blekesaune and Aalberg, 2014). Any sort of changes in laws, taxes, policies for public or royal ceremonies, etc. are well communicated through news channels, radio broadcasts or newspapers majorly. Scollon (2014) stated that news has to be structured in certain manner so that the receiver is not misguided in any form. Journalists across the globe consider the Inverted Pyramid for structuring their news stories and then presenting it to the world. This structure starts with heavier and higher priority news and less important or lighter news at the bottom of inverted pyramid.

Literature Review

In order to understand the inverted pyramid structure in depth, an example is provided. If a journalist has to present two types of news in his article one being about fire in a local building and the other being a bomb attack at commercial office; the structuring begins. The heavier news is bomb attack which will be portrayed earlier and followed with fire break out in local building. However, Elvestad, Blekesaune and Aalberg (2014) stated that prioritisation of news is complex yet important. There cannot be news on child birth without any unusual characteristics more important than a terror attack or major change in government. First used by Jessica Garretson Finch for teaching current events in the Barnard College, news has gained an important position in every discipline (Fowler, 2013).

Structure of News

The structure of news once placed on the inverted pyramid now includes several elements to maintain the flow of communication. Details associated with an event are significant parts which cannot be ignored. Fowler (2013) stated that least important information linked with an event should be portrayed at the bottom of the news while significant details are to be mentioned in the earlier parts of news. When presenting news article, story has to be linked with a lead. It is the key element on which the entire event revolves. For instance, an event of burglary takes place in primary bank should be structured in a news article or bulletin over channel in the form of lead. This will contain information about where the burglary took place and the people involved or injured. This is further followed by fact associated with the crime scene.

On the contrary, inverted pyramid is quite a traditional form of presenting events in newspapers and articles; it helps in providing concise form of information. The entire structure is based on lead because it helps in forming the flow of story (Caple and Bednarek, 2016). The objective behind news is to provide information to the readers regarding particular information which can be accomplished through effective use of lead but in concise form.

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