DISCUSSION | Discussion Synonym | Discussion Forum

Discussion Assignment Help | Discussion Synonym | Discussion Forum

Discussion Assignment Help will hold a class discussion on the results of the experiment, and how to write up your report. The discussion will consider the following, which should all be included in the discussion section of the report:

Discussion Assignment Help | Discussion Synonym | Discussion Foruma conclusion about the effect of the hormone on the growth of the peas in your experiment.

an assessment of whether the results you saw are consistent with the prediction.

a discussion of what GA3 does in the plant e.g. the effect it is known to have on growth, and how it works, where it act

an assessment of whether or not your results are consistent with this knowledge. If not, then what may have affected the results that you do have?

WRITING YOUR REPORT 

What to submit

Your report

A completed ECU assignment cover sheet

Your report is the major assignment for this unit. It must be submitted using the link on the unit website.

No email submissions will be accepted. 

Format and Presentation

Your report is to be submitted in the format described below, as the marks are allocated according to section. Write in clear and concise formal or semi-formal English – note that this is not the style in which your  lab manual iswritten. 

Your report should 

be typewritten. The work must be submitted online, and has to be saved as docx, rtf or pdf format.

be double-spaced, to allow staff to add comments

in a minimum font size of 11.

have margins of 3.0 cm on all sides.

have numbered pages.

An assignment template for use with MS Word is available in the assignment folder on the unit website. It includes the ECU coversheet for use with Turn-it-in. Start typing your assignment on the third page of the document.

Structure

Divide your report into the following sections, and present them in the order listed.

Introduction.

The introduction sets out the issue you are tackling and puts it into some context. It should contain enough background information to allow your reader to understand why you did the work and its importance, and should include in-text citations to the sources that you have used to prepare it. The introduction should end with a specific statement of the aim of the experiment, and, where appropriate, a statement of your hypothesis and/or predictions. You can be as blunt as to say, for example, “the aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of coca cola on the paint of my car. My prediction was that it would burn a hole”.

Methods.

This section details what you did, how you did it and the equipment that you used. In a research

paper, this section should give enough information for someone to repeat your experiment. For the purposes of this report, a written summary is all that is required. Importantly:Write in the past tense.

Do not present your methods as a set of instructions (like a recipe) or dot points.

If you are following well-known procedures, it is acceptable to state that you followed methods as outlined in other peoples’ work and reference that work with an in-text  citation. For example, you can cite your methods as ‘Plants were grown and harvested following methods as described in the SCI1187 Laboratory Manual (Lemson 2012) pages 10 to 15’. However, if you deviate from the methods described in the reference, you must describe the changes in full.

Include full details of the experimental design, listing the number and kinds of treatments applied.

Any analysis of data e.g. calculations, transformations, and statistical tests (such as t) should be mentioned.

NOTE: For this assessment it is not acceptable simply to write “see lab manual”.

Results. 

This section describes your findings in words with the aid of tables, graphs or other figures. It is not sufficient to put in just a table of results or a graph with no explanation. You should explain the message that comes out of your data and highlight any that are really interesting, unexpected or unusual.

When compiling tables and figures, do not include the same information twice – if the data are in a table, do not draw a graph as well. Although graphs may look pretty, tables are often faster to prepare and do the job just as well. Tables and figures should be numbered sequentially in two separate series

  • Table 1, Table 2 etc. and Fig. 1, 2, 3 etc., in the order in which they are referred to in the text. Both figures and tables need an explanatory caption, which includes the number (e.g. Table 1 or Figure 1) a title (e.g. The effect of adding nitrogen on the growth of beans), any explanation of symbols and, if appropriate, acknowledgement of sources if the information comes from another work. Captions of tables go immediately above the table, while those for figures go

In nearly all cases the data presented have been manipulated in some way i.e. what is presented is derived from your initial or ‘raw’ data. For example, present the means of plant heights rather than your actual measurements. For this assessment, your raw data and all of your calculations are to be included in an appendix at the end.

The results of statistical tests should also be mentioned. For our experiment, you should refer to the value of t you calculated, in conjunction with the df and p values for your test. If the statistical test indicates there is a significant difference between two groups, then say so.

Discussion.

The discussion is the last full section of the paper. Here you should discuss your results in the context of the background and aims you set out in the introduction. It is the place to look at your results critically and interpret what they mean. Can you explain your results based on your reading of previous works? How do they compare to what others have found in similar studies? For example, how do your results compare to what someone else may have found in other plants? Can they be explained by what we already know about the way nutrients work in plants?

Many students struggle with trying to separate what goes into the results and the discussion. The thing to keep in mind is that the results section is about the ‘what’ of the data or observations (e.g. the coke did burn a hole in the paint on my car), whereas the discussion centres on the ‘why’ (the literature suggests it did this because the acid in the drink oxidises the pigments and dissolves the acrylic).

The explanations you offer should be clear and well argued. Do not resort to meaningless explanation. For example, attributing an unexpected result to ‘experimental error’ tells your reader nothing; it simply signifies that you cannot offer an explanation for what happened. You need to show you understand what the source of that error might be: is it just chance; was there really a mistake in your method; or is the unexpected result actually telling you something very interesting? There also may be more than one explanation for your results, and the discussion is the place to consider alternatives and choose between them.

You should end your discussion with a paragraph that gives a statement of your conclusion. This should relate directly back to the aim at the end of your introduction. Do your results match your predictions? Have you actually met your aim?

Reference List.

For this assessment, use the format of references described in the ECU Referencing guide. Your work from SCI1125 Professional Science Essentials will be of use here. Your reference list should include at least the unit lab manual, your text and several other academic sources. Adhere to the standards described in SCI1125 when deciding if your sources are academic. Note that this is a references section and NOT a bibliography, so you only include works that you have actually cited in your own writing.

Some last tips.

Use your spelling and grammar checker on your work before you hand in.

Set the spelling and grammar to use Australian or UK English.

Always proofread your work before submission. It helps if someone else can do this for you, as they will nearly always spot mistakes that you have missed!

Keep a copy of what you submit.

Use the correct cover sheet for Turn-it-in!

A marking guide is provided overleaf. A full rubric will be available at the assignment submission link.

Discussion Assignment Help | Discussion Synonym | Discussion Forum

MARKING GUIDE

Putting your report in the correct format is critical. Your report will be marked out of a total of 25, with various marks allocated to each section. If a section is not present, then 0 will be awarded for that section. The breakdown of marks is given below- use it as an indicator of where you should put your largest effort.

Introduction                 3 marks

Methods                     1 marks

Results                       6 marks

Discussion                  8 marks

Referencing                2 marks

Calculations*               3 marks* English expression                                  2 marks TOTAL           25 marks

*This item will be assessed in class in week 6 by your demonstrator. 

Marking will focus on the following items:

Introduction (2-3 paragraphs): Relevant background information; sources cited appropriately; clear statement of Aim.

Methods (1-2 paragraphs): Reference to lab manual; plain English description of changes in past tense; mentions statistical analysis.

Results (3-4 paragraphs, depending on findings): Contains written descriptions of results including differences between treatments and a statement about null hypothesis and/or prediction; table of results with appropriate heading; reference to table of results, values of t, p and df where appropriate; does not contain raw data or calculations; data presented only once.

Discussion (5-8 paragraphs): Addresses all of the items described in the list under ‘Discussion’ above; has an appropriate conclusion about the effect of GA3 based on the results; assesses whether results are consistent with prediction and wider body of knowledge; discusses  of function and effect of GA in plant; considers confounding factors and experimental errors; does not redescribe data; does not introduce new data; chooses, uses and cites sources appropriately.

References: Minimum of 3 references in addition to the unit handbook and text; formatted according to ECU guide; does not use Wikipedia or similar; end references complete and properly formatted; does not include items not cited explicitly in text.

Calculations: calculations correct; full workings shown*.

English expression: Uses proper and complete sentences and paragraphs (not dot points); Sentences can be easily understood at one pass; spelling of relevant scientific terms is correct; general spelling and grammar are correct; evidence of proof-reading.

David Marks

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