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COPD can be defined as a disease in which there is a significant damage to the lungs thus reducing the lung capacity and constriction of air ways making breathing very difficult and exhaustive for patient. There are two major form of disease namely emphysema and chronic
Active smoking for a long period of time with high number of cigarettes per day is the basic etiology behind acute exacerbation of disease. There are other factors as well like age of patient, her immunity etc but primary reason is her past history of smoking.
In COPD there is a formation of various anatomical lesions like losing of lung elastic recoil capacity; there is fibrosis of the tissue in lungs and constriction of air ways due to increased production of sputum as a result of infection and allergic reactions. Smoking basically lead to release of oxidants and protease in lungs which initiates inflammatory reactions and them also hinder the lung repairing capacity thus causing damage to lung walls and linings of alveoli (Kumar and Clark, 2005). Tobacco smoke has excessive quantities of free radicals which creates a stress on the lungs. This stress is known as oxidative stress and it enables the lining and other organic parts of the lungs to get oxidized. Cytokine is the chemical which is released by the body as a inflammatory process when a irritant like smoke affects the lungs leading to inflammatory responses and damages to the lung tissues.