On the basis of the analysis of the given line chart, there has been many fluctuations inthe male and female participation rate in the employment in between July 1978 and July 2013. As per the line chart, there is a decreased trend in the male participation rate, which is from 80 % to around 70%. Whereas the women participants have increased over years ranging from around 40 % to above 50%. However, we can see an increased trend in the overall participation rate in these years. Below outlined are the three vital factors affecting the changes in the participation rate over 35 year period (Ben-Portal, Y, 1973)?
Change in attitude: Over years, it is seen that more female employees in organizations.This is mainly due to the change in traditional attitude of people where husbands’ works and wives stay at home. As a result of this attitude changes and due to more urbanization, the female worker participation rate has increased.
Age: The general trend shows that people above 65 years of age are have a low participation rate in the employment. Most of them will be retired. Among them, around 15-20 per cent people only continue working. The same pattern is seen among youngsters between the age group of 16-20 year olds. They too have a low participation rate due to several reasons like education etc. The main age groups which are involved more in employment, leading to high participation are among the age group between 25-54 year olds.
Education: The participation rate increases with the increase in the education. When the people are less educated, their involvement in the employment will be reduced as well. The general trend shows that people without having a high school degree are less prone to get a chance to become a participant.