Land, capital and labor are considered as the basic three factors of production. And at one time, employees i.e. the workforce, were considered just as another input into the production cycle. But, during research studies conducted from 1924 to 1932 by Elton Mayo (Dickson, 1973), better known as the Hawthorne studies, the entire scenario of looking at employees as another factor of production got changed. The studies concluded that, besides money there are also some another factors which affects the working behavior and attitudes of the worker. Thus, came into the picture the motivational theories and the study of different needs of the workforce from the Human Resource perspective (Bedeian, 1993).
Today, many researchers agree on the point that, the strength of the organization lies in its workforce compared to the capital or technological resources. How much well trained they are, how much they are motivated to work and how much they are competent enough to complete the given tasks – all these factors play a vital role in the success of the organization. Hence, it just goes without saying that, much more attention is required on this Human Resource and its management, as it is directly impacting on the performance of the organization (Katz, 2005). More amount of focus is required on the strategic amalgamation, commitment suppleness and eminence in order to improve the employee motivation and retention.
The definition of motivation goes something like this: “It is something that stimulates within, and which then guides the human behavior in order to achieve a particular goal.” It assists the human behavior through inner attitudes and personality to achieve a particular objective in a given period of time and also under given prevalent conditions. It is similar to that of an imperceptible force which thrusts people forward to do something in return. Today’s management is struggling hard for maintaining a motivated workforce as well as environment in order to achieve the desired performance. Another point to be mentioned here, is, that motivation does get change along with the change in personal, psychological, financial, social or any other cultural factors.