Autonomic Drugs Effect Assignment Help

Autonomic Drugs Effect Assignment Help

Autonomic Drugs Effect Assignment Help is a solution of Autonomic Drugs Effect Assignment Help that describes about the Brain and spinal code forms the part of central nervous system in the body while peripheral nervous system

The Nervous system in the body is one of the most essential part of the human body and it can be divided into two main parts which are: peripheral and central Autonomic Drugs Effect Assignment Helpnervous system. The Brain and spinal code forms the part of central nervous system in the body while peripheral nervous system can be further divided into two parts which are: autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. The Main functioning of the somatic nervous system is to innervate the structure of the body under the voluntary control which is conscious in nature (Riddle et al, 2005).

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The Main objective of the autonomic nervous system is to process the various involuntary processes like glands, large internal organs, blood vessels and cardiac muscles of the body. Parasympathetic nervous system and Sympathetic nervous system are also part of the autonomic nervous system but both these nervous systems work differently from each other.

 The autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes the control of most of the body’s organ systems.

Drugs that stimulate the SNS are called sympathomimetics they act on neurotransmitters that are involved in the SNS and produce an SNS response (Knapp, 1982). Drugs that suppress the activity of the SNS are called sympatholytics they block the SNS response. The Action of these drugs on the adrenoreceptors help them in their classification as they either stimulate the release of the noradrenaline or they can act directly by stimulating the alpha or beta receptors.

Ephedrine: It indirectly acting sympathomimetic and used commonly used to treat the hypotension associated with subarachnoid (spinal) block.

Amphetamine: Its main function is to uptake and blocks the neurotransmitter by CNS stimulation and so causes acute rises in blood pressure.

Methoxamine: It is very similar to the phenylephrine in its pharamalogical impacts. If this medicine is taken in large doses then this can cause the bradycardia.

Xylometazoline, oxymetazoline: These both are topically active vasoconstrictors used on mucous membranes, with low systemic absorption.

Alpha-2

Clonidine: It is widely used to increases haemodynamic stability during surgery, in recovery from anaesthesia and it may also reduce cardiac morbidity in high-risk cases. It reduces shivering and oxygen consumption at recovery (Huffman & Stern, 2004).

Dexmedetomidine: It is highly effective for alpha-2 receptors than clonidine.

Beta receptor agonists

Isoprenaline:it is  the first synthetic beta receptor agonist for clinical use, widely used to reduce the risk of cardiac arrhythmias .

 Salbutamol: In case of patients which are suffering from asthma this drug is mainly used and it has both effects i.e. for inhalation as well as the intravenously (Giannini & Price, 1986).  Some of the alternatives of this drug are salmeterol and formoterol  and terbutaline.

Ritodrine: This drug is used for the prevention of the premature labour and it was given as follower to the oral maintenance therapy in the body.

Sympatholytics

These drugs blocks adrenergic receptors which are either in alpha or beta form.

Alpha receptor antagonists (alpha blockers)

Phenoxybenzamine: It has given orally to induce hypotension, particularly in treatment of phaeochromocytoma.

Other receptors are: Phentolamine, Tolazoline, Prazosin and Doxazosin.

Propranolol:It is used to decreases heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output. Now it is widely used in the control of thyrotoxicosis (Dackis & Gold, 1990).  It treats essential tremor, migraine and control of the somatic manifestations of stress.

Esmolol: This drug is mainly used for the hypertension cases which are associated with the tracheal intubation and it has its major usage in the intravenenous. Mostly used for treatment of supra ventricular tachycardias (Giannini, 1999). Other Beta receptor antagonists are: Sotalol, Oxprenolol, Atenolol, Labetalol, metoprolol.

Ganglion blockers

Trimetaphan: This is the one and only drug in this group is still in clinical use.

  • It cause peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension,
  • decrease cardiac output and coronary and renal blood flow.
  • It is not long lasting so usually given by slow intravenous infusion to produce controlled hypotension.

Nicotine (in cigarettes), cocaine, amphetamines, Caffeine (in coffee, tea, and cola beverages) these are most widely used stimulants.

  • Nicotine: It is generally considered as very addictive but it is very weak drug. It contains the various subset of acetylcholine receptors and which are neurotransmitter at synapses early in the pathways of sympathetic stimulation (Campbell & Reece, 2002).
  • Amphetamines and cocaine blocks transporters used for the reuptake of dopamine (and noradrenaline) into presynaptic neurons, which increase the level of dopamine. High levels of dopamine appear to mediate the pleasurable effects are related to these type of psychoactive drugs (Jones, 2005). Some examples of amphetamines: dextroamphetamine sulphate (Dexedrine), methylphenidate (Ritalin), pemoline (Cylert).

Autonomic Drugs Effect Assignment Help

The major medical uses of amphetamines and amphetamine-like drugs are to help people in weight loss because of suppress appetite. It reduces the weight of the body by the chemical reaction in the body hence helpful in controlling the increasing cholesterol in the body (Himmelheber et al, 2000). The Chemical impact of the amphetamines and amphetamines like drugs are to surpass the appetite and which results in weight reduction of the body. Also another major use of these medicines is to help the students in giving better performance.

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These medicines control the various hyperactivity disorders which are sometimes arises in the small children usually at the school going age. Hence the hyperactivity disorder is controlled by the amphetamine and similar drugs (Gulledge & Stuart, 2005). The hyperactivity disorders are controlled by these medicines hence it helps the student to become intellectually tough so that hyperactivity disorder can be controlled and students can perform better.

  • Fen-Phen is a mixture which is made up of the two major drugs which are amphetamine in nature like phentermine and fenfluramine. Though these drugs were initially prescribed by doctors in order to reduce the body weight. But because of serious side effects this mixtures are not available.
  • Cocaine: It is generally used as the medicine which produces the anesthetic impact in the body.

Ethanol: This drug is one of the most commonly drug in the world in form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol). It has the property of inducing the human being even at low doses though it has sedative impact as well. Higher doses of ethanol depress brain centers which have important functions as pain sensation, coordination, and balance (Giannini, 1999). The reticular formation can be depressed with the use of sufficiently high doses, which is enough to cause loss of consciousness.

Barbiturates: The main purpose for which barbiturates are prescribed by doctors to patients is for the prevention of seizures and to act as the sleeping pills. The working of barbiturates is by affecting the reticular formation which initiate the sleeping action in the body and produce sleeping effect and if given in high doses then it stops breathing.

Meprobamate: Generally it is given as the tranquilizer but meprobamate has very different action from the basic tranquilizers. It acts like other sedatives and when given in combination with them it can produce lethal effects. All sedatives produce two common physiological effects: tolerance and physical dependence.

Local Anesthetics: lidocaine and procaine.

Inhaled Anesthetics: These elements are either in form of ethers or in form of the volatile hydrocarbons. In the ether group various chloroforms and diethyl ether are not used today but the same has been replaced by some other safer alternative such as the fluorinated ethers and isofluorine (Jones, 2005). The basic mode of action of these drugs are they bind to a variety of receptors such as GABA receptors in the brain hyper polarizing, and thus decreasing the sensitivity of, post synaptic neurons.

References

  • Riddle EL, Fleckenstein AE, Hanson GR (2005). “Role of monoamine transporters in mediating psychostimulant effects”.The AAPS journal 7 (4): E847–51.
  • P Knapp., 1982 Amphetamine and addiction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders. 115:406-409
  • Huffman & Stern., 2004, Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry;6(1):44-
  • AJ Giannini, WC Price, 1986, Contemporary drugs of abise. American Family Physician.33:207-213,1986

Dackis CA, Gold MS (1990). “Add ctiveness of central stimulants”. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse 9(1–2): 9–26

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