Question 1 (20 + 15 = 35 marks)a) Consider the design of an application layer protocol for the transfer of extremely large files (multi-terabyte files) for big data applications within a single network, i.e., there is no router/internetworking between the source and destination hosts. Provide two advantages and two disadvantages for selecting the TCP protocol, and two advantages and two disadvantages for selecting the UDP protocol for this application.b) Prepare a set of PowerPoint slides that explain reliable delivery using go-back-n. Your slides must include the following points:i) Introductory slide/s describing basic concepts of go-back-n;ii) Illustration of go-back-n where the receiver discards out-of-order packets;iii) Illustration of go-back-n where the receiver keeps out-of-order packets; andiv) Comparison of advantages and disadvantages.Question 2 (19 marks)In your own words, briefly describe the functionality of each of the following socket API calls for writing a client-server application using TCP: accept, bind, close, connect, listen, receive, send, and socket. In your answer, indicate any pre-requisite calls, e.g., before you can call bind() you must first have created a socket with socket().Question 3 (18 marks)The local network management team have highlighted a number of important observations in the newest data captured using SNMP and TCP. For each of these observations, briefly explain the likely causes and actions you might take as leader of the network management team:• The link from Router A to Router B has historically shown data integrity errors at a rate of approximately 0.01% packets discarded on both ends of the link. In the last month, these have climbed to over 3% of packets discarded. Reviewing the IT support documentation repository, one of the networks team identifies that new Wiki software was installed on the web server at the same time (connected to Router A).• The organisations anti-virus tool has recently identified an unusually high rate of viruses being detected in a certain computer lab space. Over the same time period, the router connected to that network shows a substantial increase in the number of active TCP connections and the volume of TCP segments being sent to and from that network.• Recently a site-to-site VPN connection was established between a new branch office and the router that acts as the connection point to the ISP. Since the VPN was established, the average queue lengths of packets on the router (incoming packets waiting to processed / outgoing packets waiting to be transmitted) have increased from a very small/insignificant number to a very large number.Question 4 (20 + 8 = 28 marks)a) Protocols at the data-link, network, and/or transport layer often implement data integrity checks using either a checksum or CRC mechanism. Explain why these integrity checks are considered inadequate for the purposes of security and why digests used in Message Authentication Codes (MACs) are more suitable.b) A malicious student has gained administrative access to the University’s DNS server and with their new access has implemented a Man in the Middle attack against HTTP+SSL connections by redirecting the web server to a compromised server’s IP address. The student intends to record the usernames and passwords of users who log in, unfortunately the other students all realised that their login details would not be secure. Explain why the students were able to identify that their login details could be compromised.
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