In what ways did the organization
In what ways did the organization of the League and the UN change in the years 1919-2000?
I need help writing about:
– The General Assemblies
– Membership of the League and the UN
– The Council of the League and the UN Security Council
– The role of the UN Secretary-General
By the mid 1800s, a need was felt for a global network of communication among nation states across the world. The International Telecommunication Union and Universal Postal Union were founded in 1865 and 1874 respectively, to promote dialogue. The International Committee of the Red Cross, and the Hague Convention, which were established later on, came close to the functions of the UN, standing as international treaties. However, the were ineffective, it seems, at the ground level, given the consequent outbreak of WW I. In the wake of the loss of life, the need for a common mediating body became urgent, and the League of Nations was established by the Paris Peace Conference, in 1919. The League of Nations participated as a mediating entity in territorial disputes, aviation and postal connections, and opium control (drug trade and use had become a worldwide problem by then). However, it underrepresented the colonial world (half of the world, at the time), some major powers, such as the USSR and proved to be inefficient in the wake of major conflicts around the world, for instance the Japanese invasion of China, and the rise of Adolf Hitler.
WW II broke out, and when it ended, a more pressing fervor was felt to avoid such large scale loss of life and conflict again. Since the League of Nations had failed, the United Nations was established to replace it. This new world organization had more members, and was kicked off on a charter that was authored by two nation-heads, namely Churchill, and Roosevelt. The charter itself was condensed from proposals presented by the Allied Big Four- China, the Soviet Union, the UK, and the US. Moreover, it paid attention to the mistakes that the League of Nations had made. It was signed by 50 member states.
The first few years were rough, on account of the Cold War between the US and the USSR. After the Cold War, however, the UN took on more peace missions in a decade than it had up until then. The was a stream of Security Council decisions that were taken. UN was involved, from the beginning, in major decisions that changed the course of history. It approved the partition of Palestine and the subsequent formation of Israel. The first peacekeeping force was established to resolve the Suez Crisis. The United Nations Operations in Congo helped restore some order to the African continent. As decolonization spread, (with some participation from the UN, more member states joined, especially post 1960.
However, the UN has often been criticized, for its inefficiency in resolving crises like the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, the Rawandan genocide, and the crisis in the Middle East, and many more. As a result, the UN’s peace keeping missions have changed course in the last two decades to include socio-economic interventions.