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Unit 6 Business Decision Making

Unit 6 Business Decision Making

Module Booklet 

Unit 6 Business Decision Making
Unit level 5
Unit code D/601/0578
Qualification BTEC HND in Business
Term Start Date 22/02/2016
Hand out date 29/02/2016
Submission Deadline 15/07/2016
Lecture 15 Weeks
Revision Clinic 3 Weeks
Module Leader Emmanuel B Ofori
Lecturer Solomon A Odegbesan

 

INTRODUCTION, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

INTRODUCTION

Unit 6 Business Decision MakingIn business, good decision making requires the effective use of information. This unit gives learners the opportunity to examine a variety of sources and develop techniques in relation to four aspects of information: data gathering, data storage, and the tools available to create and present useful information.

ICT is used in business to carry out much of this work and an appreciation and use of appropriate ICT software is central to completion of this unit. Specifically, learners will be made aware of how to use spreadsheets and other software for data analysis and the preparation of information. The use of spreadsheets to manipulate of numbers, and understanding how to apply the results, are seen as more important than the mathematical derivation of formulae used.

Learners will gain an appreciation of information systems currently used at all levels in an organisation as aids to decision making. Organizational data is a collection of raw facts relating to the enterprise and its environment. It can be classified in a number of ways eg, quantitative / qualitative, discrete/ continuous, internal, external formal informal primary and secondary.

Much of a manager’s work will involve the use of data and information, collected and stored internally or externally. Decisions regarding the future plans and operations of the organization will incorporate information about past performance, future market potential, industry and company statistics etc—all of which need to be gathered processed and analysed.

Aim

The aim of this unit is to give learners the opportunity to develop techniques for data gathering and storage, an understanding of the tools available to create and present useful information, in order to make business decisions.

Key Objectives

  • Use a variety of sources for the collection of data, both primary and secondary.
  • Evaluate a range of techniques to analyse data effectively for business purposes.
  • Produce information in appropriate formats for decision making in an organisational context
  • Use software-generated information to make decisions in an organisation the factors which impact on individual and group decision making.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

  • Be able to use a variety of sources for the collection of data, both primary and secondary
  • Understand a range of techniques to analyse data effectively for business purposes
  • Be able to produce information in appropriate formats for decision making in an organisational context
  • Be able to use software-generated information to make decisions in an organisation

LEARNING OUTCOMES AND ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

LO1   Be able to use a variety of sources for the collection of data, both primary and secondary.

1.1 Create a plan for the collection of primary and secondary data for a given business problem

1.2 Present the survey methodology and sampling frame used

1.3 Design a questionnaire for a given business problem

LO2   Understand a range of techniques to analyse data effectively for business purposes

2.1 Create information for decision making by summarising data using representative values

2.2 Analyse the results to draw valid conclusions in a business context

2.3 Analyse data using measures of dispersion to inform a given business scenario

2.4 Explain how quartiles, percentiles and the correlation coefficient are used to draw useful conclusions in business context

LO3

Be able to produce information in appropriate formats for decision making in an organisational context.

3.1 Produce graphs using spreadsheets and draw valid conclusions based on the information derived

3.2 Create trend lines in spreadsheet graphs to assist in forecasting for specified business information

3.3 Prepare a business presentation using suitable software and techniques to disseminate information effectively

3.4 Produce a formal business report

LO4 Be able to use software-generated information to make decisions in an organisation

4.1 Use appropriate information processing tools

4.2 Prepare a project plan for an activity and determine the critical path

4.3 Use financial tools for decision making

Key Knowledge and Understanding

  • Create a plan for primary and secondary data collection.
  • Usea range of techniques for the collection of data
  • Analyse the data collected using statistical techniques to estimate the measure of location such as the arithmetic mean, the mode and the median.
  • Analyse the result and use the outcome to make effective decision.
  • Calculate the measure of dispersion using the data collected.
  • Analyse the data to make informed and effective strategic decision for the organisation used in the case study.
  • Produce different graphs using spreadsheets and make a case for the organisation in question.
  • Produce a trend line for a given data and explain the practical implication with respect to the organisation in question.
  • Produce a formal business report.
  • Prepare a project plan for a given scenario.
  • Prepare a project plan for a given set of data.
  • Use financial tools such as PBP, ARR and NPV to appraise a project.

Unit content:

LO1. Be able to use a variety of sources for the collection of data both Primary and Secondary

Primary sources: survey methodology; questionnaire design; sample frame; sampling methods; sample error

Secondary sources: internet research; government and other published data; by-product data

Storage: security of information; data protection issues; ethical issues

LO2. Be Understand a range of techniques to analyse data effectively for business purposes

Representative values: Mean median, mode; calculation from raw data and frequency distributions using appropriate software; using the results to draw valid conclusions

Measures of dispersion: standard deviation for small and large samples; typical uses(statistical processes eg control buffer stock levels)

Calculation: use of quartiles, percentiles, correlation coefficient

LO3. Be able to produce information in appropriate formats for decision making in an organisational context

Creation and interpretation of graphs using spreadsheets: line, pie, bar charts and histograms

Scatter (XY) graphs and linear trend lines: extrapolation for forecasting (reliability)

Presentations and report writing: use of appropriate formats; presentation software and techniques

LO4. Be able to use software generated information to make decisions in an Organisation

Management information systems: computers and information processing tools for operational,tactical and strategic levels of the organisation

Project management: networking and critical path analysis, Gantt and Pert charts

Financial tools: net present value; discounted cash flow; internal rates of return

Teaching Plan

Unit: 6BUSINESS DECISION MAKING

Wk Lecture Schedule Outcome of session

After completing each session learners will be able to:

Activity/seminar and formative assessment Resources
1

 

Introduction to the module

Address the mode of assessment

Primary data, secondary data collection.

Address how to create a plan for collection of date for the chosen scenario.

Create a plan for the collection of primary and secondary data for a given business problem (1.1)

 

 

 

Learners create a data collection plan

 

 

Module outline PowerPoint slides, supporting materials and activities

2

 

Survey methodology and different sampling methods used in survey. Present the survey methodology and sampling frame used. (1.2)  

Quiz learners about identifying the correct sampling methods for different scenarios

 

PowerPoint slides, supporting materials and activities

3

 

Questionnaire design and the different question forms and discuss when and how they can be used most effectively.

 

Design a questionnaire for a given business problem. (1.3)

 

 

Learners design a questionnaire for a given problem

 

 

PowerPoint slides, supporting materials and activities

4

 

 Using range of techniques to analyse data effectively for business purposes- Measures of Central Tendency Understand and be able to calculate Mode, Median and Mean (2.1, 2.2)

 

Class Exercises  

PowerPoint slides, supporting materials and activities

5

 

Lab session Calculate Mode, Median, Mean and Range on Excel. (2.1, 2.2)

 

 

Solving problems on excel Video demonstration
6

 

Analyse data using measures of dispersion and explain how quartiles, percentiles and the correlation coefficient are used to draw useful conclusions in  business context

 

Analyse data using measures of dispersion to inform a given business scenario. (2.3, 2.4)

 

Activities,  sample, case study, mock sampling addressing the assignment PowerPoint slides,

Question bank and activities.

7

 

Lab session Calculate Standard Deviation, quartiles, percentiles and correlation coefficient. (2.3, 2.4)

 

 

Solving problems on excel Video demonstration
8

 

Be able to produce information in appropriate formats for decisions making in an organizational context. Produce graphs using spreadsheets and draw valid conclusions based on the information derived. (3.1)

 

Create trend lines in spreadsheet graphs to assist in forecasting for specified business information. (3.2)

 

Problems and activities Computer lab
9

 

Challenges for preparing presentation using suitable software and techniques to disseminate information effectively.

presentation

Prepare a business presentation using suitable software and techniques to disseminate information effectively. (3.3)

 

Class group activities PowerPoint slides, supporting materials and activities.
10

 

Challenges for producing a business report and styles and modes of Produce a formal business report. (3.4)

 

Class group activities PowerPoint slides, supporting materials and activities.
11

 

Use appropriate information processing tools

 

Use computers and information processing tools for operational, tactical and strategic levels of the organisation. (4.1)

 

Class activities Computer lab
12

 

Prepare a project plan for an activity and determine the critical path

 

Create a project plan using networking, critical path analysis, Gantt and Pert charts. (4.2)

 

Class  activities Computer lab
13 Use financial tools for decision making

 

 

Use net present value; discounted cash flow; internal rates of return for decision making. (4.3)

 

Class activities
14 Revision Class: A review of assessment criteria 1.1 to 2.4 Addressing learning outcome 1-2

 

15 Revision Class: A review of assessment criteria 1.1 to 2.4 Addressing learning outcome 3-4

 

16 Assignment support Assignment support and guidance

 

Module booklet
17 Assignment support Assignment support and guidance

 

Module booklet
18 Assignment support Assignment support and guidance

 

Module booklet
19 Assessment and feedback Feedback given to the learner

 

20 Assessment and feedback Feedback given to the learner

 

21 Assessment and feedback Feedback given to the learner

 

Recommended text and links:

BPP Learning Media; Business essentials (supporting HND/HNC and foundation) Business Decision making Supporting texts and books 

  1. Anderson, Sweeney, Williams, Thomas A.Modern business statistics with Microsoft Office Excel (Cengage Learning, 2008) ISBN 68665, 9780324568660 
  1. Trevor WegnerApplied Business Statistics: Methods and Excel-Based Applications (Juta and Company Ltd, 2010, Edition 2nd, illustrated) ISBN 0702172863, 9780702172861 
  1. Teale, John, David-Management Decision Making: Towards an Integrative Approach Financial Times/ Prentice Hall; 1 edition (31 Oct 2002) ISBN-10: 0201619229 

Journals and newspapers

The financial and mainstream press can be a useful source of information, both in terms of data for case studies and background understanding.

Videos

A variety of videos is available covering financial topics.

Websites

www.bized.ac.uk provides case studies appropriate for educational purposes

www.iasb.org.uk International Accounting Standards Board 

Lecturer : Solomon A Odegbesan

Campus: ALL

Contact details:aodegbesan@edu.ukcbc.ac.uk 

Assessment: The module will be assessed meeting all the LO as specified by the awarding body, Ed Excel.

Please read the instructions carefully while addressing the tasks specified.

Contribution: 100% of the module

Outline Details: Task 1, Task 2 and Task 3 are to be addressed as per the scenario and following the instructions and evidenced with a appropriate structure and presentation. Task 4 will be addressed as instructed.

Your report should not exceed approx 4000 words. Details enclosed in the assignment brief

Teaching and Learning Activities

The module tutor(s) will aim to combine lectures with tutorial activities. This environment will provide opportunities for the student to understand the course material through case study and text and to apply it in a practical way. The intent is to facilitate interactive class activities, and discussion about the significant role of research in a global and local business environment.

Teaching Ethos

The college’s approach towards teaching and learning is simple and effective. The main aim of UKCBC is to assist learners in maximising their potential by ensuring that they are taught clearly and effectively. This will enable students to engage in the learning environment and promote success in both their academic studies and subsequent career. 

Methods of Delivery:

Lectures

These will be developed around the key concepts as mentioned in the indicative course content and will use a range of live examples and cases from business practice to demonstrate the application of theoretical concepts. This method is primarily used to identify and explain key aspects of the subject so that learners can utilise their private study time more effectively

Seminars

These are in addition to the lectures. The seminars are designed to give learners the opportunity to test their understanding of the material covered in the lectures and private study with the help of reference books. This methodology usually carries a set of questions identified in advance. Seminars are interactive sessions led by the learners.

This method of study gives the learner an excellent opportunity to clarify any points of difficulty with the tutor and simultaneously develop their oral communication skills.

Case studies

An important learning methodology is the extensive use of case studies. They enable learners to apply the concepts that they learn in their subjects. The learners have to study the case, analyse the facts presented and arrive at conclusions and recommendations. This assists in the assessment of the learner’s ability to apply to the real world the tools and techniques of analysis which they have learnt. The case study serves as a supplement to the theoretical knowledge imparted through the course work.

Plagiarism

Any act of plagiarism will be seriously dealt with according to the colleges and awarding bodies’ regulations. In this context the definition and scope of plagiarism are presented below:

Plagiarism is presenting someone’s work as your won. It includes copying information directly from the web or books without referencing the material; submitting joint coursework as an individual effort; copying another student’s coursework; stealing coursework form another student and submitting it as your own work. Suspected plagiarism will be investigated and if found to have occurred will be dealt with according to the college procedure. (For further details please refer to the plagiarism policy and the student code of conduct.)

Assignment brief

Unit 6 Business Decision Making
Unit code D/601/0578
Qualification HND in Business
Term Start date 22/02/2016
Assignment/hand-out date 29/02/2016
Deadline/hand-in date 15/07/2016
 
Assignment title Data collection, analyses and presentation for a given business problem
Purpose of this assignment is to assess learners ability with regards to:

§  Collection of data, both primary and secondary.

§  Analysing data effectively for business purposes.

§  Producing information in appropriate formats for decision making in an organisational context

§  Use of software-generated information to make decisions in an organisation

Instruction:

TASK 1 to TASK 3: You are required to follow the instructions as specified towards each task. The survey will cover information about; student, academic staff and tutors; administration; facilities, student support and learning environment. You also need to collect both primary and secondary data, analyse the data and produce appropriate report and give a feedback of the findings as specified.

Scenario

UK College of Business and Computing (UKCBC) is a leading educational institution based in the heart of London, enabling those with a passion for higher education, the opportunity to further their academic qualifications. With a host of valued qualifications and professional courses, available to students from the UK and countries across the globe, the options provided by UKCBC ensures fulfilling students potential to easily achieve their desired qualifications.

Information from College website

The college offers an inspiring academic team emphasises its commitment to enhance the quality of life of all our students, through high quality in teaching, research and service. We provide a creative and nurturing campus environment with a good range of academic programmes, delivered by very experienced and qualified staff who take pride in the in their ability to meet the needs of international and Home (UK/EU) students.

Student Support

We pride ourselves on our warm friendly learning environment. Our administration team work closely with all academic staff to provide excellent support and guidance throughout the students’ time with us. We are well aware of the difficulties and challenges faced by students at various stages, especially the international students, who are in a new Country, away from their home. We put a great deal of care into helping them settle. Students support includes a full induction programme, with orientation trips to the well known heritage sites across UK. Students are continuously supported by the academic and administrative departments for their learning and welfare needs, throughout their course of study at the College.

Flexible Learning

UK College of Business and Computing (UKCBC) are dedicated to providing students with a learning environment that is fully responsive to their needs. As such, we ensure that our courses offer flexibility to support you in all possible ways, to ensure that you will not be constrained on our academic, personal or work related limitations that may otherwise affect your pursuing a course of study. Flexibility is provided in terms of course time tables, class schedules like combination of morning and evening sessions as well as extra tutorial support for professional development. Our campuses across London offer an array of courses tailored to support your academic and professional development. These courses offer a degree of flexibility in their structure in order to support the circumstances of its students. Whether it relates to your commitments or the need to support family around your study, UKCBC aims to provide a solution through flexible learning option.

With 5 campuses located in London and Essex, the college represents an ideal setting to Learn, grow and succeed. The college is very ambitious and is looking to grow to become one of the leading educational pioneers in the United Kingdom. As part of its effort to gather as much information as possible in order to help the management and Board of Directors to make effective and efficient sustainable decision, the college has approached the student union of UKCBC and commission an independent survey on “Student experience and perception about UKCBC”.You can choose a different business problem if you wish.

You are member of the student union and have been asked to carry out the survey and provide comprehensive report on your findings and make recommendations to the UKCBC Board of Directors.

To ensure the report is not bias, you need to take sample from each campus using appropriate method(s) and cover both past and present students.

(LO1 AC 1.1, AC 1.2 and AC 1.3)

Task 1

You are required to:

1.1 Create a plan for the collection of primary and secondary data into student experience and perception about UKCBC or your chosen business problem.

Please note: You plan should take into consideration the scope, duration, resources to be used, the sample size, location and your target

1.2 Present the survey methodology and sampling frame used for the survey into student experience and perception about UKCBC or your chosen business problem.

Please note: Your presentation should include the explanation of the methodology to be used for the purpose of this survey. In addition, the sampling frame needs to be defined and explained.

1.3 Design a questionnaire for collecting data into survey into student experience and perception about UKCBC or your chosen business problem.

Please note: The questionnaire should take into consideration both qualitative and quantitative information. Your questionnaire should also cover information about; students, academic staff and tutors; administration; facilities, student support and learning environment if collecting data onstudent experience and perception about UKCBC.

Instruction for task 2

For this task, you will be required to demonstrate your understanding of a range of techniques to analyse data effectively for business purposes.

With the data collected in task 1.3, use appropriate statistical technique(s) to analyse the data about learner experience and perception about the College.

Please note: If you wish you may choose to combine tasks 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 by creating a frequency table first and then calculate representative values (mean, mode, median, variance and standard deviation)followed by an analyses to inform and draw valid conclusions for the business problem.

(LO 2 AC 2.1, AC 2.2, AC 2.3 and AC 2.4)

Task 2

You are required to;

2.1 Create information for decision making by summarizing data gathered from the survey in task 1.3 by creating a frequency table and then calculate representative values (arithmetic mean, median and mode) from your data. 

2.2 Analyse the results of task 1.3 to draw valid conclusions about the survey.

Note: This is the creation of frequency table required for 2.1. – here the results should be analysed and valid conclusions drawn.

2.3 Analyse data using measures of dispersion to inform a given business scenario (standard deviations)

2.4 Explain how quartiles, percentiles and the correlation coefficient are used to draw useful conclusions in a business context.

Note: You explanation should emphasise on the usefulness of these data in decision making with respect to UKCBC.

Instruction for task 3

In this task you will be required  to produce information in appropriate formats for decision making in the organisational context

(LO 3 AC3.1 and AC3.2)

Task 3

You are required to;

P3.1- Produce graphs using spreadsheets and draw valid conclusions based on the data analysed in Task 2.2.

Note: You may use a combination of pie charts, bar charts, histogram and ogives and ensure that each graph is labelled accordingly.

P3.2- Using the information below (or gather past data on your chosen business problem) create trend lines in a spreadsheet using scatter graphs to assist in forecasting student population for 2017 and 2018 based on extrapolation of previous year’s data.

Student population
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
HND Business 70 270 600 808 950
HND TTM 50 196 350 500 520
HND CSD 10 116 150 186 200
Other 30 58 100 64 50
Total 160 640 1200 1500 1720

Please note: You need to state clearly any assumption(s) made for the forecasted figures and draw your own conclusion. All axes must be labelled clearly

P3.3 – Prepare a power point presentation to be presented to UKCBC Board of Directors on your key findings.

Please note:

This must be a power point presentation of at least 10 slides which will be uploaded separately from the main assignment  and must contain;

§  The title of the presentation and your name

§  The methodology

§  Charts and summary of the key findings

P3.4 – Produce a formal business report to UKCBC Board of Directors about your findings and recommendations. This should be in a proper report format and not less than 500 words.

The report must be in word format and has;

§  a title

§  purpose and limitation

§  content

§  summary and recommendation

Scenario for task 4

For most businesses, there are a variety of requirements for information. Senior managers need information to help with their business planning. Middle management need more detailed information to help them monitor and control business activities. Employees with operational roles need information to help them carry out their duties.

UKCBC is planning on introducing a new software called ‘Tribal’ to manage its information processing and dissemination. A key tool of the new system is called ‘SITS: Vision’.It manages student administrative processes, from initial enquiry through to graduation and alumni, and acts as the central point of information on students and their qualifications.

The system also integrates a range of  supporting applications, including:

§  finance systems

§  campus-access systems

§  library systems

§  estates management

§  human-resources systems

§  virtual-learning environments.

The engineers have provided the following timetable for the project;

Activity Description Predecessor Days
1 Create schedule none 10
2 Buy hardware none 5
3 Programming A1 20
4 Installation A2 5
5 Test code A3 20
6 Test system A5 10
7 Conversion A4 5
8 Write manual A4 15
9 Dummy run A7 0
10 Training staff A8 5
11 User testing A10, A6 10

A cost-benefit analysis have been conducted for the project and the cost and savings benefit over a five period is given below;

  Net Cash flow (£)
Year 0 -150,000
Year 1 12,000
Year 2 25,000
Year 3 25,000
Year 4 35,000
Year 5 40,000
(LO4 AC 4.1, AC 4.2 and AC 4.3)

Task 4

Required

4.1 Using the new ‘SITS: Vision’ tool explain how it will support information processing at operational, tactical and strategic levels for UKCBC giving examples.

4.2 Using the activity table given above for the  project, determine the critical path for the project

4.3 From the information provided above, assess the viability of the project using suitable financial tools Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) at 3% and 5% discount factor.

 

Evidence checklist

Criteria Reference To achieve the criteria the evidence must show the learner have: Achieved?

(tick)

1.1 Create a plan for the collection of primary and secondary data for a given business problem  
1.2 Present the survey methodology and sampling frame used  
1.3 Design a questionnaire for a given business problem  
2.1 Create information for decision making by summarising data using representative values  
2.2 Analyse the results to draw valid conclusions in a business context
2.3 Analyse data using measures of dispersion to inform a given business scenario
2.4 Explain how quartiles, percentiles and the correlation coefficient are used to draw useful conclusions in business context
3.1 Produce graphs using spreadsheets and draw valid conclusions based on the information derived
3.2 Create trend lines in spreadsheet scatter graphs to assist in forecasting for specified business information
3.3 Prepare a business presentation using suitable software and techniques to disseminate information effectively
3.4 Produce a formal business report
4.1 Use appropriate information processing tools
4.2 Prepare a project plan for an activity and determine the critical path
4.3 Use financial tools for decision making

Contextualisation gridto achieve higher grade

Descriptors Indicative characteristics Contextualisation

 

Merit Description:    
M1. Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions. An effective approach to study and research has been used.

 

Has identified and applied an effective approach/method to study and research by successfully identifying and applying those concepts.

Learner should be able to identify a range of appropriate research methods and strategies for collecting and analysing data.

M2. Select/ design and apply appropriate methods/ techniques. The Leaner should demonstrate an ability to synthesize and process the research data to draw valuable conclusion which can inform good business decision making

 

Complex information/data have been synthesized and processed.

 

M3. Present and communicate appropriate findings. A range of methods of presentation has been used. Learner has used appropriate presentation and structured approach to the presentation of the research findings in variety of ways which useful and suitable for good business decision making.

 

 

Distinction Description:
D1. Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusion.

 

Synthesis has been used to generate and justify valid conclusions Learner has exhibited great critical thinking ability in planning, implementing and presenting the research findings. This can be exhibited in tasks 1, 2, 3 and 4
D2.

Take responsibility for managing and organizing activities.

Substantial activities/projects or investigations have been planned, managed and well organised. Learner has taken the responsibility for planning, managing and organising the introduction of a new software. A great deal of ability is also demonstrated by the learner in using other project management techniques to ensure the project delivery is a success. Evidence in Task 4
D3.

Demonstrate convergent, lateral and creative thinking

Ideas generated by learner and decisions taken to demonstrate understanding of the intended learning outcome Learner has demonstrated a thorough understanding of issues raised in the questions and demonstrated excellent ability in application, analyses and evaluation to reach a conclusion. The evidence of this can be seen in Tasks 1, 2 and 3 culminating in an official business report.

Glossary of academic words used in this and other assignments

Account for Give reasons for: explain why something happens.
Analyse Examine something in very close detail and from a number of angles. Identify the important points and chief features, and understand their relationships.
Argue Present a case for and against a proposal or statement and present your own opinion at the end.
Compare Show how two or more things are similar.
Contrast Look at two or more things and draw out differences. State whether the differences are significant.
Critically evaluate Weigh arguments for and against something, assess the strength of evidence on both sides.
Define Give the exact meaning of.
Describe Give a detailed account of the main features or characteristics …
Discuss Write about the most important characteristics of something. Give arguments for and against, look at it from a variety of perspectives.
Distinguish Identify the differences between two items.
Evaluate Assess the worth or usefulness of something. Use evidence to support your opinion.
Examine Look at something in detail. You may be expected to ‘critically evaluate’ it as well.
Explain Make it clear why something happens or why it is the way it is.
Identify Recognise name and briefly describe something.
Illustrate Use examples to further explain or justify something. Could be visual or verbal.
Interpret Explain the meaning or significance of information or data that you are presenting.
Justify Provide evidence that supports an argument or idea.
Outline Give only the main points, show only the main structure.
Prove Present evidence in a logical structure to support an argument for a point of view.
Relate (Two meanings) 1. Show how ideas / theories/ events etc are linked or connected.

2. Tell a story. Explain something in a narrative fashion.

Review Survey and comment on the key aspects of something or a range of things.
State Give the main features clearly and simply.
Summarise Draw out the main points, omitting detail and examples.
To what extent… How far is something true, or contributes to a final outcome. Also how far is it not true? In academic writing the answer is usually somewhere in the middle.
Trace Describe the development of something; follow the order of different stages in an event or process.

Adapted from Cottrell.S.(2003) The Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke. Palgrave.

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