CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN ABU DHABI EMIRATE
The mean annual temperature is 25°C with slight cooler temperatures in the mountainous areas. The mean monthly relative humidity is around 60% during winter and around 50% during summer, varying between 46% in May to 64% in December. The two wind systems affect the country: the winter “Shamal” winds affect the western coast and the summer Monsoon affects the Gulf of Oman and eastern mountain areas. The average annual evaporation is 3,322 mm, while the mean annual rainfall is 100 mm for the period 1976-2015.
The principal rain falls between November and March, with the maximum intensity during February and March and about 90% of precipitation falls during winter and spring. The wettest months are February and March, when 60% of precipitation is received. February is the rainiest month with an average of 37.9 mm while June is the driest month with an average of 0.3 mm. However, rainfall is extremely variable in space and time, depending on the climatic conditions, geographic location, local topography and rainfall-driving mechanism.
Global warming and climate change cause variations in temperature and rainfall; and data collected by the National Centre of Meteorology and Seismology from stations based in Abu Dhabi Emirate indicated a rise of 0.6 to 2.7ᵒC in temperature at all monitored stations.
Abu Dhabi Emirate is located between latitudes 22o 44 and 25o 00, and longitudes 51o 00 and 56o 00, and has an arid, sub-tropical continental climate, with a long hot summer and a short mild winter.
The summer season is dry, extends from April to November and temperature may reach 50°C. The average air temperature during July is 35°C and the average rainfall is 2 mm. The winter is the most unstable period when active weather systems can produce rain and strong winds. The winter months are limited to the period December-March, during which the temperature is mild and rains are light to moderate. January is coolest month with an average temperature of 18°C, while February is the rainiest month, with an average rainfall of 42 mm (Boer 1997).
There are many meteorological stations in the Abu Dhabi Emirate operating under supervision of the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment, other stations working under supervision of other government agencies such as airports and universities (Figure-1).